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Arrival Procedures



21. Missed Approach


When a landing cannot be accomplished, advise

ATC and, upon reaching the missed approach point
defined on the approach procedure chart, the pilot
must comply with the missed approach instructions
for the procedure being used or with an alternate
missed approach procedure specified by ATC.


Obstacle protection for missed approach is

predicated on the missed approach being initiated at
the decision altitude/decision height (DA/DH) or at
the missed approach point and not lower than
minimum descent altitude (MDA). A climb gradient
of at least 200 feet per nautical mile is required,
(except for Copter approaches, where a climb of at
least 400 feet per nautical mile is required), unless a
higher climb gradient is published in the notes section
of the approach procedure chart. When higher than
standard climb gradients are specified, the end point
of the non

standard climb will be specified at either

an altitude or a fix. Pilots must preplan to ensure that
the aircraft can meet the climb gradient (expressed in
feet per nautical mile) required by the procedure in
the event of a missed approach, and be aware that
flying at a higher than anticipated ground speed
increases the climb rate requirement (feet per
minute). Tables for the conversion of climb gradients
(feet per nautical mile) to climb rate (feet per minute),
based on ground speed, are included on page D1 of
the U.S. Terminal Procedures booklets. Reasonable
buffers are provided for normal maneuvers. Howev-
er, no consideration is given to an abnormally early
turn. Therefore, when an early missed approach is
executed, pilots should, unless otherwise cleared by
ATC, fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate
to the missed approach point at or above the MDA or
DH before executing a turning maneuver.


If visual reference is lost while circling



from an instrument approach, the missed approach
specified for that particular procedure must be
followed (unless an alternate missed approach
procedure is specified by ATC). To become
established on the prescribed missed approach
course, the pilot should make an initial climbing turn
toward the landing runway and continue the turn until
established on the missed approach course. Inasmuch
as the circling maneuver may be accomplished in
more than one direction, different patterns will be
required to become established on the prescribed
missed approach course, depending on the aircraft

position at the time visual reference is lost.
Adherence to the procedure will help assure that an
aircraft will remain laterally within the circling and
missed approach obstruction clearance areas. Refer
to paragraph h concerning vertical obstruction
clearance when starting a missed approach at other
than the MAP. (See FIG 5




At locations where ATC radar service is

provided, the pilot should conform to radar vectors
when provided by ATC in lieu of the published
missed approach procedure.  (See FIG 5




Some locations may have a preplanned alternate

missed approach procedure for use in the event the
primary NAVAID used for the missed approach
procedure is unavailable. To avoid confusion, the
alternate missed approach instructions are not
published on the chart. However, the alternate missed
approach holding pattern will be depicted on the
instrument approach chart for pilot situational
awareness and to assist ATC by not having to issue
detailed holding instructions. The alternate missed
approach may be based on NAVAIDs not used in the
approach procedure or the primary missed approach.
When the alternate missed approach procedure is
implemented by NOTAM, it becomes a mandatory
part of the procedure. The NOTAM will specify both
the textual instructions and any additional equipment
requirements necessary to complete the procedure.
Air traffic may also issue instructions for the alternate
missed approach when necessary, such as when the
primary missed approach NAVAID fails during the
approach. Pilots may reject an ATC clearance for an
alternate missed approach that requires equipment
not necessary for the published approach procedure
when the alternate missed approach is issued after
beginning the approach. However, when the alternate
missed approach is issued prior to beginning the
approach the pilot must either accept the entire
procedure (including the alternate missed approach),
request a different approach procedure, or coordinate
with ATC for alternative action to be taken, i.e.,
proceed to an alternate airport, etc.


When approach has been missed, request

clearance for specific action; i.e., to alternative
airport, another approach, etc.


Pilots must ensure that they have climbed to a

safe altitude prior to proceeding off the published
missed approach, especially in nonradar environ-
ments. Abandoning the missed approach prior to
reaching the published altitude may not provide