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Other Airspace Areas


Protect declared national disasters for

humanitarian reasons in the State of Hawaii (14 CFR
Section 91.138).


Protect the President, Vice President, or other

public figures (14 CFR Section 91.141).


Provide a safe environment for space agency

operations (14 CFR Section 91.143).


Except for hijacking situations, when the

provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) or (a)(2)
are necessary, a temporary flight restrictions area will
only be established by or through the area manager at
the Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC)
having jurisdiction over the area concerned. A
temporary flight restrictions NOTAM involving the
conditions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(3) will be
issued at the direction of the service area office
director having oversight of the airspace concerned.
When hijacking situations are involved, a temporary
flight restrictions area will be implemented through
the TSA Aviation Command Center. The appropriate
FAA air traffic element, upon receipt of such a
request, will establish a temporary flight restrictions
area under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1).


The FAA accepts recommendations for the

establishment of a temporary flight restrictions area
under 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1) from military
major command headquarters, regional directors of
the Office of Emergency Planning, Civil Defense
State Directors, State Governors, or other similar
authority. For the situations involving 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(2), the FAA accepts recommenda-
tions from military commanders serving as regional,
subregional, or Search and Rescue (SAR) coordina-
tors; by military commanders directing or
coordinating air operations associated with disaster
relief; or by civil authorities directing or coordinating
organized relief air operations (includes representa-
tives of the Office of Emergency Planning, U.S.
Forest Service, and State aeronautical agencies).
Appropriate authorities for a temporary flight
restrictions establishment under 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(3) are any of those listed above or
by State, county, or city government entities.


The type of restrictions issued will be kept to a

minimum by the FAA consistent with achievement of
the necessary objective. Situations which warrant the
extreme restrictions of 14 CFR Section 91.137(a)(1)
include, but are not limited to: toxic gas leaks or

spills, flammable agents, or fumes which if fanned by
rotor or propeller wash could endanger persons or
property on the surface, or if entered by an aircraft
could endanger persons or property in the air;
imminent volcano eruptions which could endanger
airborne aircraft and occupants; nuclear accident or
incident; and hijackings. Situations which warrant
the restrictions associated with 14 CFR Sec-
tion 91.137(a)(2) include: forest fires which are
being fought by releasing fire retardants from
aircraft; and aircraft relief activities following a
disaster (earthquake, tidal wave, flood, etc.). 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(3) restrictions are established for
events and incidents that would attract an unsafe
congestion of sightseeing aircraft.


The amount of airspace needed to protect

persons and property or provide a safe environment
for rescue/relief aircraft operations is normally
limited to within 2,000 feet above the surface and
within a 3


mile radius. Incidents occurring

within Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace will
normally be handled through existing procedures and
should not require the issuance of a temporary flight
restrictions NOTAM. Temporary flight restrictions
affecting airspace outside of the U.S. and its
territories and possessions are issued with verbiage
excluding that airspace outside of the 12

mile coastal



The FSS nearest the incident site is normally the

“coordination facility.” When FAA communications
assistance is required, the designated FSS will
function as the primary communications facility for
coordination between emergency control authorities
and affected aircraft. The ARTCC may act as liaison
for the emergency control authorities if adequate
communications cannot be established between the
designated FSS and the relief organization. For
example, the coordination facility may relay
authorizations from the on-scene emergency re-
sponse official in cases where news media aircraft
operations are approved at the altitudes used by relief


ATC may authorize operations in a temporary

flight restrictions area under its own authority only
when flight restrictions are established under 14 CFR
Section 91.137(a)(2) and (a)(3). The appropriate
ARTCC/airport traffic control tower manager will,
however, ensure that such authorized flights do not
hamper activities or interfere with the event for which
restrictions were implemented. However, ATC will