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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–19 Edition) 

§ 135.181 

(ii) Proper flightcrew action with re-

spect to the equipment operation. 

(2) An outline of all input sources 

that must be operating for the TCAS to 
function properly. 

[Doc. No. 25355, 54 FR 951, Jan. 10, 1989, as 
amended by Amdt. 135–54, 59 FR 67587, Dec. 
29, 1994] 

§ 135.181

Performance requirements: 

Aircraft operated over-the-top or in 
IFR conditions. 

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs 

(b) and (c) of this section, no person 

(1) Operate a single-engine aircraft 

carrying passengers over-the-top; or 

(2) Operate a multiengine aircraft 

carrying passengers over-the-top or in 
IFR conditions at a weight that will 
not allow it to climb, with the critical 
engine inoperative, at least 50 feet a 
minute when operating at the MEAs of 
the route to be flown or 5,000 feet MSL, 
whichever is higher. 

(b) Notwithstanding the restrictions 

in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, mul-
tiengine helicopters carrying pas-
sengers offshore may conduct such op-
erations in over-the-top or in IFR con-
ditions at a weight that will allow the 
helicopter to climb at least 50 feet per 
minute with the critical engine inoper-
ative when operating at the MEA of 
the route to be flown or 1,500 feet MSL, 
whichever is higher. 

(c) Without regard to paragraph (a) of 

this section, if the latest weather re-
ports or forecasts, or any combination 
of them, indicate that the weather 
along the planned route (including 
takeoff and landing) allows flight 
under VFR under the ceiling (if a ceil-
ing exists) and that the weather is fore-
cast to remain so until at least 1 hour 
after the estimated time of arrival at 
the destination, a person may operate 
an aircraft over-the-top. 

(d) Without regard to paragraph (a) 

of this section, a person may operate 
an aircraft over-the-top under condi-
tions allowing— 

(1) For multiengine aircraft, descent 

or continuance of the flight under VFR 
if its critical engine fails; or 

(2) For single-engine aircraft, descent 

under VFR if its engine fails. 

[Doc. No. 16097, 43 FR 46783, Oct. 10, 1978, as 
amended by Amdt. 135–20, 51 FR 40710, Nov. 7, 
1986; Amdt. 135–70, 62 FR 42374, Aug. 6, 1997] 

§ 135.183

Performance requirements: 

Land aircraft operated over water. 

No person may operate a land air-

craft carrying passengers over water 

(a) It is operated at an altitude that 

allows it to reach land in the case of 
engine failure; 

(b) It is necessary for takeoff or land-


(c) It is a multiengine aircraft oper-

ated at a weight that will allow it to 
climb, with the critical engine inoper-
ative, at least 50 feet a minute, at an 
altitude of 1,000 feet above the surface; 

(d) It is a helicopter equipped with 

helicopter flotation devices. 

§ 135.185

Empty weight and center of 

gravity: Currency requirement. 

(a) No person may operate a multien-

gine aircraft unless the current empty 
weight and center of gravity are cal-
culated from values established by ac-
tual weighing of the aircraft within the 
preceding 36 calendar months. 

(b) Paragraph (a) of this section does 

not apply to— 

(1) Aircraft issued an original air-

worthiness certificate within the pre-
ceding 36 calendar months; and 

(2) Aircraft operated under a weight 

and balance system approved in the op-
erations specifications of the certifi-
cate holder. 

Subpart D—VFR/IFR Operating 

Limitations and Weather Re-

§ 135.201


This subpart prescribes the operating 

limitations for VFR/IFR flight oper-
ations and associated weather require-
ments for operations under this part. 

§ 135.203

VFR: Minimum altitudes. 

Except when necessary for takeoff 

and landing, no person may operate 
under VFR— 

(a) An airplane— 

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