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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–19 Edition) 

§ 61.45 

(3) Satisfactorily accomplishes any 

additional training needed and obtains 
the appropriate instructor endorse-
ments, if additional training is re-
quired; and 

(4) Presents to the examiner for the 

retest a properly completed and signed 

[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, Apr. 4, 1997, as 
amended by Amdt. 61–124, 74 FR 42549, Aug. 
21, 2009; Amdt. 61–142, 83 FR 30276, June 27, 

§ 61.45

Practical tests: Required air-

craft and equipment. 



Except as provided in 

paragraph (a)(2) of this section or when 
permitted to accomplish the entire 
flight increment of the practical test 
in a flight simulator or a flight train-
ing device, an applicant for a certifi-
cate or rating issued under this part 
must furnish: 

(1) An aircraft of U.S. registry for 

each required test that— 

(i) Is of the category, class, and type, 

if applicable, for which the applicant is 
applying for a certificate or rating; and 

(ii) Has a standard airworthiness cer-

tificate or special airworthiness certifi-
cate in the limited, primary, or light- 
sport category. 

(2) At the discretion of the examiner 

who administers the practical test, the 
applicant may furnish— 

(i) An aircraft that has an airworthi-

ness certificate other than a standard 
airworthiness certificate or special air-
worthiness certificate in the limited, 
primary, or light-sport category, but 
that otherwise meets the requirements 
of paragraph (a)(1) of this section; 

(ii) An aircraft of the same category, 

class, and type, if applicable, of foreign 
registry that is properly certificated by 
the country of registry; or 

(iii) A military aircraft of the same 

category, class, and type, if aircraft 
class and type are appropriate, for 
which the applicant is applying for a 
certificate or rating, and provided— 

(A) The aircraft is under the direct 

operational control of the U.S. Armed 

(B) The aircraft is airworthy under 

the maintenance standards of the U.S. 
Armed Forces; and 

(C) The applicant has a letter from 

his or her commanding officer author-

izing the use of the aircraft for the 
practical test. 


Required equipment (other than con-


(1) Except as provided in para-

graph (b)(2) of this section, an aircraft 
used for a practical test must have— 

(i) The equipment for each area of op-

eration required for the practical test; 

(ii) No prescribed operating limita-

tions that prohibit its use in any of the 
areas of operation required for the 
practical test; 

(iii) Except as provided in paragraphs 

(e) and (f) of this section, at least two 
pilot stations with adequate visibility 
for each person to operate the aircraft 
safely; and 

(iv) Cockpit and outside visibility 

adequate to evaluate the performance 
of the applicant when an additional 
jump seat is provided for the examiner. 

(2) An applicant for a certificate or 

rating may use an aircraft with oper-
ating characteristics that preclude the 
applicant from performing all of the 
tasks required for the practical test. 
However, the applicant’s certificate or 
rating, as appropriate, will be issued 
with an appropriate limitation. 


Required controls. 

Except for light-

er-than-air aircraft, and a glider with-
out an engine, an aircraft used for a 
practical test must have engine power 
controls and flight controls that are 
easily reached and operable in a con-
ventional manner by both pilots, un-
less the Examiner determines that the 
practical test can be conducted safely 
in the aircraft without the controls 
easily reached by the Examiner. 


Simulated instrument flight equip-


An applicant for a practical test 

that involves maneuvering an aircraft 
solely by reference to instruments 
must furnish: 

(1) Equipment on board the aircraft 

that permits the applicant to pass the 
areas of operation that apply to the 
rating sought; and 

(2) A device that prevents the appli-

cant from having visual reference out-
side the aircraft, but does not prevent 
the examiner from having visual ref-
erence outside the aircraft, and is oth-
erwise acceptable to the Adminis-


Aircraft with single controls. 

practical test may be conducted in an 

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