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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 

Pt. 60, App. F 

the FSTDs demonstrated technical and oper-
ational capabilities as prescribed in this 

Qualification Performance Standard (QPS)


the collection of procedures and criteria used 
when conducting objective and subjective 
tests, to establish FSTD qualification levels. 
The QPS are published in the appendices to 
this part, as follows: Appendix A, for Air-
plane Simulators; Appendix B, for Airplane 
Flight Training Devices; Appendix C, for Hel-
icopter Simulators; Appendix D, for Heli-
copter Flight Training Devices; Appendix E, 
for Quality Management Systems for Flight 
Simulation Training Devices; and Appendix 
F, for Definitions and Abbreviations for 
Flight Simulation Training Devices. 

Qualification Test Guide (QTG)

—the pri-

mary reference document used for evalu-
ating an aircraft FSTD. It contains test re-
sults, statements of compliance and capa-
bility, the configuration of the aircraft sim-
ulated, and other information for the eval-
uator to assess the FSTD against the appli-
cable regulatory criteria. 

Quality Management System (QMS)

—a flight 

simulation quality-systems that can be used 
for external quality-assurance purposes. It is 
designed to identify the processes needed, de-
termine the sequence and interaction of the 
processes, determine criteria and methods 
required to ensure the effective operation 
and control of the processes, ensure the 
availability of information necessary to sup-
port the operation and monitoring of the 
processes, measure, monitor, and analyze the 
processes, and implement the actions nec-
essary to achieve planned results. 

Real-World Airport

—as used in this part in 

reference to airport visual models, a com-
puter generated visual depiction of an exist-
ing airport. 


—when used as an adjective 

in this part, typical, demonstrative, or char-
acteristic of, the feature being described. For 
example, ‘‘representative sampling of tests’’ 
means a sub-set of the complete set of all 
tests such that the sample includes one or 
more of the tests in each of the major cat-
egories, the results of which provide the 
evaluator with an overall understanding of 
the performance and handling characteris-
tics of the FSTD. 

Reversible Control System

—a control system 

in which movement of the control surface 
will backdrive the pilot’s control on the 
flight deck. 


—the airplane attitude with respect to, 

or around, the longitudinal axis expressed in 

Set of Aircraft

—aircraft that share similar 

handling and operating characteristics, simi-
lar operating envelopes, and have the same 
number and type of engines or powerplants. 

Sideslip Angle

—the angle between the rel-

ative wind vector and the airplane plane of 

symmetry. (Note: this definition replaces the 
current definition of ‘‘sideslip.’’) 

Simulation Quality Management System 


—the elements of a quality manage-

ment system for FSTD continuing qualifica-


—a presentation of one or more 

variables at a given instant of time. 

Special Evaluation

—an evaluation of the 

FSTD for purposes other than initial, up-
grade, or continuing qualification. Cir-
cumstances that may require a special eval-
uation include movement of the FSTD to a 
different location, or an update to FSTD 
software or hardware that might affect per-
formance or flying qualities. 


—a certificate holder who seeks or 

maintains FSTD qualification and is respon-
sible for the prescribed actions as prescribed 
in this part and the QPS for the appropriate 
FSTD and qualification level. 

Statement of Compliance and Capability 


—a declaration that a specific require-

ment has been met and explaining how the 
requirement was met (e.g., gear modeling ap-
proach, coefficient of friction sources). The 
SOC must also describe the capability of the 
FSTD to meet the requirement, including 
references to sources of information for 
showing compliance, rationale to explain 
how the referenced material is used, mathe-
matical equations and parameter values 
used, and conclusions reached. 

Step Input

—an abrupt control input held at 

a constant value. 

Subjective Test

—a qualitative assessment of 

the performance and operation of the FSTD. 


—FSTD movement with respect to or 

along the longitudinal axis. 


—FSTD movement with respect to or 

along the lateral axis. 



—Total time of the flare maneuver. 



—Total time from initial throttle move-

ment until a 10% response of a critical en-
gine parameter. 



—Total time from initial throttle move-

ment to an increase of 90% of go around 
power or a decrease of 90% from maximum 
take-off power. 

Time History

—a presentation of the change 

of a variable with respect to time. 

Training Program Approval Authority 


—a person authorized by the Adminis-

trator to approve the aircraft flight training 
program in which the FSTD will be used. 

Training Restriction

—a temporary condition 

where an FSTD with missing, malfunc-
tioning, or inoperative (MMI) components 
may continue to be used at the qualification 
level indicated on its SOQ, but restricted 
from completing the tasks for which the cor-
rect function of the MMI component is re-

Transport Delay or ‘‘Throughput’’

—the total 

FSTD system processing time required for 
an input signal from a pilot primary flight 
control until motion system, visual system, 

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