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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–19 Edition) 

Pt. 60, App. A 

sideslip where the aerodynamic model re-
mains valid for training. For stall recovery 
training tasks, satisfactory aerodynamic 
model fidelity must be shown through at 
least 10 degrees beyond the stall identifica-
tion angle of attack. For the purposes of 
determining this validity range, the stall 
identification angle of attack is defined as 
the angle of attack where the pilot is given 
a clear and distinctive indication to cease 
any further increase in angle of attack 
where one or more of the following charac-
teristics occur: 

i. No further increase in pitch occurs when 

the pitch control is held at the full aft stop 
for 2 seconds, leading to an inability to ar-
rest descent rate; 

ii. An uncommanded nose down pitch that 

cannot be readily arrested, which may be 
accompanied by an uncommanded rolling 

iii. Buffeting of a magnitude and severity 

that is a strong and effective deterrent to 
further increase in angle of attack; and 

iv. Activation of a stick pusher. 

The model validity range must also be capa-

ble of simulating the airplane dynamics as 
a result of a pilot initially resisting the 
stick pusher in training. For aircraft 
equipped with a stall envelope protection 
system, the model validity range must ex-
tend to 10 degrees of angle of attack be-
yond the stall identification angle of at-
tack with the protection systems disabled 
or otherwise degraded (such as a degraded 
flight control mode as a result of a pitot/ 
static system failure). 

c. Model Characteristics: Within the declared 

range of model validity, the SOC must ad-
dress, and the aerodynamic model must in-
corporate, the following stall characteris-
tics where applicable by aircraft type: 

i. Degradation in static/dynamic lateral-di-

rectional stability; 

ii. Degradation in control response (pitch, 

roll, yaw); 

iii. Uncommanded roll acceleration or roll- 

off requiring significant control deflection 
to counter; 

iv. Apparent randomness or non-repeat-


v. Changes in pitch stability; 
vi. Stall hysteresis; 
vii. Mach effects; 
viii. Stall buffet; and 
ix. Angle of attack rate effects. 

An overview of the methodology used to ad-

dress these features must be provided. 

5. Statement of Compliance (Subject Mat-

ter Expert Pilot Evaluation): The sponsor 
must provide an SOC that confirms the 
FSTD has been subjectively evaluated by a 
subject matter expert (SME) pilot who is 
knowledgeable of the aircraft’s stall charac-
teristics. In order to qualify as an acceptable 
SME to evaluate the FSTD’s stall character-

istics, the SME must meet the following re-

a. Has held a type rating/qualification in the 

aircraft being simulated; 

b. Has direct experience in conducting stall 

maneuvers in an aircraft that shares the 
same type rating as the make, model, and 
series of the simulated aircraft. This stall 
experience must include hands on manipu-
lation of the controls at angles of attack 
sufficient to identify the stall (



rent buffet, stick pusher activation, etc.) 
through recovery to stable flight; 

c. Where the SME’s stall experience is on an 

airplane of a different make, model, and 
series within the same type rating, dif-
ferences in aircraft specific stall recogni-
tion cues and handling characteristics 
must be addressed using available docu-
mentation. This documentation may in-
clude aircraft operating manuals, aircraft 
manufacturer flight test reports, or other 
documentation that describes the stall 
characteristics of the aircraft; and 

d. Must be familiar with the intended stall 

training maneuvers to be conducted in the 


general aircraft configurations, 

stall entry methods, etc.) and the cues nec-
essary to accomplish the required training 
objectives. The purpose of this requirement 
is to ensure that the stall model has been 
sufficiently evaluated in those general air-
craft configurations and stall entry meth-
ods that will likely be conducted in train-

This SOC will only be required once at the 
time the FSTD is initially qualified for stall 
training tasks as long as the FSTD’s stall 
model remains unmodified from what was 
originally evaluated and qualified. Where an 
FSTD shares common aerodynamic and 
flight control models with that of an engi-
neering simulator or development simulator 
that is acceptable to the FAA, the FAA will 
accept an SOC from the data provider that 
confirms the stall characteristics have been 
subjectively assessed by an SME pilot on the 
engineering or development simulator. 

An FSTD sponsor may submit a request to 

the Administrator for approval of a devi-
ation from the SME pilot experience require-
ments in this paragraph. This request for de-
viation must include the following informa-

a. An assessment of pilot availability that 

demonstrates that a suitably qualified 
pilot meeting the experience requirements 
of this section cannot be practically lo-
cated; and 

b. Alternative methods to subjectively 

evaluate the FSTD’s capability to provide 
the stall recognition cues and handling 
characteristics needed to accomplish the 
training objectives. 

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