background image






Arrival Procedures


Simultaneous dependent approaches


are an

ATC procedure permitting approaches to airports
having parallel runway centerlines separated by at
least 2,500 feet up to 9,000 feet. Integral parts of a
total system are ILS or other system providing
approach navigation, radar, communications, ATC
procedures, and required airborne equipment. RNAV
equipment in the aircraft or GLS equipment on the
ground and in the aircraft may replace the required
airborne and ground based ILS equipment. Although

precision  minimums may be published, pilots

must only use those procedures specifically autho-
rized by chart note. For example, the chart note
“LNAV NA during simultaneous operations,”
requires vertical guidance. When given a choice,
pilots should always fly a precision approach
whenever possible.


A simultaneous dependent approach differs

from a simultaneous independent approach in that,
the minimum distance between parallel runway
centerlines may be reduced; there is no requirement
for radar monitoring or advisories; and a staggered
separation of aircraft on the adjacent final course is


A minimum of 1.0 NM radar separation

(diagonal) is required between successive aircraft on
the adjacent final approach course when runway
centerlines are at least 2,500 feet but no more than
3,600 feet apart. A minimum of 1.5 NM radar
separation (diagonal) is required between successive
aircraft on the adjacent final approach course when
runway centerlines are more than 3,600 feet but no
more than 8,300 feet apart. When runway centerlines
are more than 8,300 feet but no more than 9,000 feet
apart a minimum of 2 NM diagonal radar separation
is provided. Aircraft on the same final approach
course within 10 NM of the runway end are provided
a minimum of 3 NM radar separation, reduced to
2.5 NM in certain circumstances. In addition, a
minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a minimum of three
miles radar separation is provided between aircraft
during turn on to the parallel final approach course.


Whenever parallel approaches are in use, pilots

are informed by ATC or via the ATIS


that approaches

to both runways are in use. The charted IAP also notes

which runways may be used simultaneously.



addition, the radar controller will have the interphone
capability of communicating with the tower
controller where separation responsibility has not
been delegated to the tower.


ATC will not specifically identify these operations as being
dependent when advertised on the ATIS.


Simultaneous ILS Runway 19 right and ILS Runway 19 left
in use.


At certain airports, simultaneous dependent

approaches are permitted to runways spaced less than
2,500 feet apart. In this case, ATC will provide no less
than the minimum authorized diagonal separation
with the leader always arriving on the same runway.
The trailing aircraft is permitted reduced diagonal
separation, instead of the single runway separation
normally utilized for runways spaced less than 2,500
feet apart. For wake turbulence mitigation reasons:


Reduced diagonal spacing is only permitted

when certain aircraft wake category pairings exist;
typically when the leader is either in the large or small
wake turbulence category, and


All aircraft must descend on the glideslope

from the altitude at which they were cleared for the
approach during these operations.

When reduced separation is authorized, the IAP
briefing strip indicates that simultaneous operations
require the use of vertical guidance and that the pilot
should maintain last assigned altitude until intercept-
ing the glideslope. No special pilot training is
required to participate in these operations.


Either simultaneous dependent approaches with reduced
separation or SOIA PRM approaches may be conducted to
Runways 28R and 28L at KSFO spaced 750 feet apart,
depending on weather conditions and traffic volume. Pilots
should use caution so as not to confuse these operations.
Plan for SOIA procedures only when ATC assigns a PRM
approach or the ATIS advertises PRM approaches are in
use. KSFO is the only airport where both procedures are
presently conducted.


AIM, Paragraph 5


16, Simultaneous Close Parallel PRM Approaches

and Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA)