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Airport Operations

surface traffic. They will be addressed at two levels;
operations less than 1,200 feet RVR to 500 feet RVR
and operations less than 500 feet RVR.


Specific lighting systems and surface markings may be
found in Paragraph 2


11, Taxiway Lights, and

Paragraph 2


4 , Taxiway Markings.


When low visibility conditions exist, pilots

should focus their entire attention on the safe
operation of the aircraft while it is moving. Checklists
and nonessential communication should be withheld
until the aircraft is stopped and the brakes set.



20. Exiting the Runway After Landing

The following procedures must be followed after
landing and reaching taxi speed.


Exit the runway without delay at the first

available taxiway or on a taxiway as instructed by
ATC. Pilots must not exit the landing runway onto
another runway unless authorized by ATC. At
airports with an operating control tower, pilots should
not stop or reverse course on the runway without first
obtaining ATC approval.


Taxi clear of the runway unless otherwise

directed by ATC. An aircraft is considered clear of the
runway when all parts of the aircraft are past the
runway edge and there are no restrictions to its
continued movement beyond the runway holding
position markings. In the absence of ATC instruc-
tions, the pilot is expected to taxi clear of the landing
runway by taxiing beyond the runway holding
position markings associated with the landing
runway, even if that requires the aircraft to protrude
into or cross another taxiway or ramp area. Once all
parts of the aircraft have crossed the runway holding
position markings, the pilot must hold unless further
instructions have been issued by ATC.



The tower will issue the pilot instructions which will

permit the aircraft to enter another taxiway, runway, or
ramp area when required.


Guidance contained in subparagraphs a and b above is

considered an integral part of the landing clearance and
satisfies the requirement of 14 CFR Section 91.129.


Immediately change to ground control frequen-

cy when advised by the tower and obtain a taxi



The tower will issue instructions required to resolve any

potential conflictions with other ground traffic prior to
advising the pilot to contact ground control.


Ground control will issue taxi clearance to parking.

That clearance does not authorize the aircraft to “enter”
or “cross” any runways. Pilots not familiar with the taxi
route should request specific taxi instructions from ATC.



21. Practice Instrument Approaches


Various air traffic incidents have indicated the

necessity for adoption of measures to achieve more
organized and controlled operations where practice
instrument approaches are conducted. Practice
instrument approaches are considered to be instru-
ment approaches made by either a VFR aircraft not on
an IFR flight plan or an aircraft on an IFR flight plan.
To achieve this and thereby enhance air safety, it is
Air Traffic’s policy to provide for separation of such
operations at locations where approach control
facilities are located and, as resources permit, at
certain other locations served by ARTCCs or parent
approach control facilities. Pilot requests to practice
instrument approaches may be approved by ATC
subject to traffic and workload conditions. Pilots
should anticipate that in some instances the controller
may find it necessary to deny approval or withdraw
previous approval when traffic conditions warrant. It
must be clearly understood, however, that even
though the controller may be providing separation,
pilots on VFR flight plans are required to comply with
basic VFR weather minimums (14 CFR Sec-
tion 91.155). Application of ATC procedures or any
action taken by the controller to avoid traffic
conflictions does not relieve IFR and VFR pilots of
their responsibility to see


avoid other traffic

while operating in VFR conditions (14 CFR
Section 91.113). In addition to the normal IFR
separation minimums (which includes visual separa-
tion) during VFR conditions, 500 feet vertical
separation may be applied between VFR aircraft and
between a VFR aircraft and the IFR aircraft. Pilots not
on IFR flight plans desiring practice instrument
approaches should always state ‘practice’ when
making requests to ATC. Controllers will instruct
VFR aircraft requesting an instrument approach to
maintain VFR. This is to preclude misunderstandings
between the pilot and controller as to the status of the
aircraft. If pilots wish to proceed in accordance with
instrument flight rules, they must specifically request
and obtain, an IFR clearance.