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Controlled Airspace

g. Ultralight Vehicles.

No person may operate an

ultralight vehicle within Class A, Class B, Class C, or
Class D airspace or within the lateral boundaries of
the surface area of Class E airspace designated for an
airport unless that person has prior authorization from
the ATC facility having jurisdiction over that
airspace. (See 14 CFR Part 103.)

h. Unmanned Free Balloons.

Unless otherwise

authorized by ATC, no person may operate an
unmanned free balloon below 2,000 feet above the
surface within the lateral boundaries of Class B,
Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for
an airport. (See 14 CFR Part 101.)

i. Parachute Jumps.

No person may make a

parachute jump, and no pilot


command may

allow a parachute jump to be made from that aircraft,
in or into Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D
airspace without, or in violation of, the terms of an
ATC authorization issued by the ATC facility having
jurisdiction over the airspace. (See 14 CFR Part 105.)



2. Class A Airspace

a. Definition.

Generally, that airspace from

18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600,
including the airspace overlying the waters within
12 nautical miles off the coast of the 48 contiguous
States and Alaska; and designated international
airspace beyond 12 nautical miles off the coast of the
48 contiguous States and Alaska within areas of
domestic radio navigational signal or ATC radar
coverage, and within which domestic procedures are

b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment


Unless otherwise authorized, all

persons must operate their aircraft under IFR.  (See
14 CFR Section 71.33 and 14 CFR Section 91.167
through 14 CFR Section 91.193.)

c. Charts.

Class A airspace is not specifically




3. Class B Airspace

a. Definition.

Generally, that airspace from the

surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation’s
busiest airports in terms of IFR operations or
passenger enplanements. The configuration of each
Class B airspace area is individually tailored and

consists of a surface area and two or more layers
(some Class B airspace areas resemble upside-down
wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all
published instrument procedures once an aircraft
enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for
all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that
are so cleared receive separation services within the
airspace. The cloud clearance requirement for VFR
operations is “clear of clouds.”

b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment

Requirements for VFR Operations.

Regardless of

weather conditions, an ATC clearance is required
prior to operating within Class B airspace. Pilots
should not request a clearance to operate within
Class B airspace unless the requirements of 14 CFR
Section 91.215 and 14 CFR Section 91.131 are met.
Included among these requirements are:


Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, aircraft

must be equipped with an operable two-way radio
capable of communicating with ATC on appropriate
frequencies for that Class B airspace.


No person may take off or land a civil aircraft

at the following primary airports within Class B
airspace unless the pilot


command holds at least

a private pilot certificate:


Andrews Air Force Base, MD


Atlanta Hartsfield Airport, GA


Boston Logan Airport, MA


Chicago O’Hare Intl. Airport, IL


Dallas/Fort Worth Intl. Airport, TX


Los Angeles Intl. Airport, CA


Miami Intl. Airport, FL


Newark Intl. Airport, NJ


New York Kennedy Airport, NY


New York La Guardia Airport, NY


Ronald Reagan Washington National

Airport, DC


San Francisco Intl. Airport, CA


No person may take off or land a civil aircraft

at an airport within Class B airspace or operate a civil
aircraft within Class B airspace unless:


The pilot


command holds at least a

private pilot certificate; or