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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 135.209 

§ 135.209

VFR: Fuel supply. 

(a) No person may begin a flight op-

eration in an airplane under VFR un-
less, considering wind and forecast 
weather conditions, it has enough fuel 
to fly to the first point of intended 
landing and, assuming normal cruising 
fuel consumption— 

(1) During the day, to fly after that 

for at least 30 minutes; or 

(2) At night, to fly after that for at 

least 45 minutes. 

(b) No person may begin a flight op-

eration in a helicopter under VFR un-
less, considering wind and forecast 
weather conditions, it has enough fuel 
to fly to the first point of intended 
landing and, assuming normal cruising 
fuel consumption, to fly after that for 
at least 20 minutes. 

§ 135.211

VFR: Over-the-top carrying 

passengers: Operating limitations. 

Subject to any additional limitations 

in § 135.181, no person may operate an 
aircraft under VFR over-the-top car-
rying passengers, unless— 

(a) Weather reports or forecasts, or 

any combination of them, indicate that 
the weather at the intended point of 
termination of over-the-top flight— 

(1) Allows descent to beneath the 

ceiling under VFR and is forecast to re-
main so until at least 1 hour after the 
estimated time of arrival at that point; 
or 

(2) Allows an IFR approach and land-

ing with flight clear of the clouds until 
reaching the prescribed initial ap-
proach altitude over the final approach 
facility, unless the approach is made 
with the use of radar under § 91.175(i) of 
this chapter; or 

(b) It is operated under conditions al-

lowing— 

(1) For multiengine aircraft, descent 

or continuation of the flight under 
VFR if its critical engine fails; or 

(2) For single-engine aircraft, descent 

under VFR if its engine fails. 

[Doc. No. 16097, 43 FR 46783, Oct. 10, 1978, as 
amended by Amdt. 135–32, 54 FR 34332, Aug. 
18, 1989; 73 FR 20164, Apr. 15, 2008] 

§ 135.213

Weather reports and fore-

casts. 

(a) Whenever a person operating an 

aircraft under this part is required to 
use a weather report or forecast, that 

person shall use that of the U.S. Na-
tional Weather Service, a source ap-
proved by the U.S. National Weather 
Service, or a source approved by the 
Administrator. However, for operations 
under VFR, the pilot in command may, 
if such a report is not available, use 
weather information based on that pi-
lot’s own observations or on those of 
other persons competent to supply ap-
propriate observations. 

(b) For the purposes of paragraph (a) 

of this section, weather observations 
made and furnished to pilots to con-
duct IFR operations at an airport must 
be taken at the airport where those 
IFR operations are conducted, unless 
the Administrator issues operations 
specifications allowing the use of 
weather observations taken at a loca-
tion not at the airport where the IFR 
operations are conducted. The Admin-
istrator issues such operations speci-
fications when, after investigation by 
the U.S. National Weather Service and 
the certificate-holding district office, 
it is found that the standards of safety 
for that operation would allow the de-
viation from this paragraph for a par-
ticular operation for which an air car-
rier operating certificate or operating 
certificate has been issued. 

[Doc. No. 16097, 43 FR 46783, Oct. 10, 1978, as 
amended by Amdt. 135–60, 61 FR 2616, Jan. 26, 
1996] 

§ 135.215

IFR: Operating limitations. 

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs 

(b), (c) and (d) of this section, no person 
may operate an aircraft under IFR out-
side of controlled airspace or at any 
airport that does not have an approved 
standard instrument approach proce-
dure. 

(b) The Administrator may issue op-

erations specifications to the certifi-
cate holder to allow it to operate under 
IFR over routes outside controlled air-
space if— 

(1) The certificate holder shows the 

Administrator that the flight crew is 
able to navigate, without visual ref-
erence to the ground, over an intended 
track without deviating more than 5 
degrees or 5 miles, whichever is less, 
from that track; and 

(2) The Administrator determines 

that the proposed operations can be 
conducted safely. 

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