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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 121.438 

§ 121.438

Pilot operating limitations 

and pairing requirements. 

(a) If the second in command has 

fewer than 100 hours of flight time as 
second in command in operations under 
this part in the type airplane being 
flown, and the pilot in command is not 
an appropriately qualified check pilot, 
the pilot in command must make all 
takeoffs and landings in the following 
situations: 

(1) At special airports designated by 

the Administrator or at special air-
ports designated by the certificate 
holder; and 

(2) In any of the following conditions: 
(i) The prevailing visibility value in 

the latest weather report for the air-
port is at or below 

3

4

mile. 

(ii) The runway visual range for the 

runway to be used is at or below 4,000 
feet. 

(iii) The runway to be used has 

water, snow, slush or similar condi-
tions that may adversely affect air-
plane performance. 

(iv) The braking action on the run-

way to be used is reported to be less 
than ‘‘good’’. 

(v) The crosswind component for the 

runway to be used is in excess of 15 
knots. 

(vi) Windshear is reported in the vi-

cinity of the airport. 

(vii) Any other condition in which 

the PIC determines it to be prudent to 
exercise the PIC’s prerogative. 

(b) No person may conduct oper-

ations under this part unless, for that 
type airplane, either the pilot in com-
mand or the second in command has at 
least 75 hours of line operating flight 
time, either as pilot in command or 
second in command. The Administrator 
may, upon application by the certifi-
cate holder, authorize deviations from 
the requirements of this paragraph (b) 
by an appropriate amendment to the 
operations specifications in any of the 
following circumstances: 

(1) A newly certificated certificate 

holder does not employ any pilots who 
meet the minimum requirements of 
this paragraph. 

(2) An existing certificate holder adds 

to its fleet a type airplane not before 
proven for use in its operations. 

(3) An existing certificate holder es-

tablishes a new domicile to which it as-

signs pilots who will be required to be-
come qualified on the airplanes oper-
ated from that domicile. 

[Doc. No. 27210, 60 FR 20870, Apr. 27, 1995] 

§ 121.439

Pilot qualification: Recent 

experience. 

(a) No certificate holder may use any 

person nor may any person serve as a 
required pilot flight crewmember, un-
less within the preceding 90 days, that 
person has made at least three takeoffs 
and landings in the type airplane in 
which that person is to serve. The 
takeoffs and landings required by this 
paragraph may be performed in a vis-
ual simulator approved under § 121.407 
to include takeoff and landing maneu-
vers. In addition, any person who fails 
to make the three required takeoffs 
and landings within any consecutive 
90-day period must reestablish recency 
of experience as provided in paragraph 
(b) of this section. 

(b) In addition to meeting all applica-

ble training and checking requirements 
of this part, a required pilot flight 
crewmember who has not met the re-
quirements of paragraph (a) of this sec-
tion must reestablish recency of expe-
rience as follows: 

(1) Under the supervision of a check 

airman, make at least three takeoffs 
and landings in the type airplane in 
which that person is to serve or in an 
advanced simulator or visual simu-
lator. When a visual simulator is used, 
the requirements of paragraph (c) of 
this section must be met. 

(2) The takeoffs and landings re-

quired in paragraph (b)(1) of this sec-
tion must include— 

(i) At least one takeoff with a simu-

lated failure of the most critical pow-
erplant; 

(ii) At least one landing from an ILS 

approach to the lowest ILS minimum 
authorized for the certificate holder; 
and 

(iii) At least one landing to a full 

stop. 

(c) A required pilot flight crew-

member who performs the manuvers 
prescribed in paragraph (b) of this sec-
tion in a visual simulator must— 

(1) Have previously logged 100 hours 

of flight time in the same type airplane 
in which he is to serve; 

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