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549 

Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 

§ 61.65 

the ‘‘Aeronautical Information Man-
ual;’’ 

(3) Air traffic control system and pro-

cedures for instrument flight oper-
ations; 

(4) IFR navigation and approaches by 

use of navigation systems; 

(5) Use of IFR en route and instru-

ment approach procedure charts; 

(6) Procurement and use of aviation 

weather reports and forecasts and the 
elements of forecasting weather trends 
based on that information and personal 
observation of weather conditions; 

(7) Safe and efficient operation of air-

craft under instrument flight rules and 
conditions; 

(8) Recognition of critical weather 

situations and windshear avoidance; 

(9) Aeronautical decision making and 

judgment; and 

(10) Crew resource management, in-

cluding crew communication and co-
ordination. 

(c)  Flight proficiency. A person who 

applies for an instrument rating must 
receive and log training from an au-
thorized instructor in an aircraft, or in 
a full flight simulator or flight train-
ing device, in accordance with para-
graph (g) of this section, that includes 
the following areas of operation: 

(1) Preflight preparation; 
(2) Preflight procedures; 
(3) Air traffic control clearances and 

procedures; 

(4) Flight by reference to instru-

ments; 

(5) Navigation systems; 
(6) Instrument approach procedures; 
(7) Emergency operations; and 
(8) Postflight procedures. 
(d)  Aeronautical experience for the in-

strument-airplane rating. A person who 
applies for an instrument-airplane rat-
ing must have logged: 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph 

(g) of this section, 50 hours of cross- 
country flight time as pilot in com-
mand, of which 10 hours must have 
been in an airplane; and 

(2) Forty hours of actual or simu-

lated instrument time in the areas of 
operation listed in paragraph (c) of this 
section, of which 15 hours must have 
been received from an authorized in-
structor who holds an instrument-air-
plane rating, and the instrument time 
includes: 

(i) Three hours of instrument flight 

training from an authorized instructor 
in an airplane that is appropriate to 
the instrument-airplane rating within 
2 calendar months before the date of 
the practical test; and 

(ii) Instrument flight training on 

cross country flight procedures, includ-
ing one cross country flight in an air-
plane with an authorized instructor, 
that is performed under instrument 
flight rules, when a flight plan has 
been filed with an air traffic control fa-
cility, and that involves— 

(A) A flight of 250 nautical miles 

along airways or by directed routing 
from an air traffic control facility; 

(B) An instrument approach at each 

airport; and 

(C) Three different kinds of ap-

proaches with the use of navigation 
systems. 

(e)  Aeronautical experience for the in-

strument-helicopter rating. A person who 
applies for an instrument-helicopter 
rating must have logged: 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph 

(g) of this section, 50 hours of cross- 
country flight time as pilot in com-
mand, of which 10 hours must have 
been in a helicopter; and 

(2) Forty hours of actual or simu-

lated instrument time in the areas of 
operation listed under paragraph (c) of 
this section, of which 15 hours must 
have been with an authorized instruc-
tor who holds an instrument-helicopter 
rating, and the instrument time in-
cludes: 

(i) Three hours of instrument flight 

training from an authorized instructor 
in a helicopter that is appropriate to 
the instrument-helicopter rating with-
in 2 calendar months before the date of 
the practical test; and 

(ii) Instrument flight training on 

cross country flight procedures, includ-
ing one cross country flight in a heli-
copter with an authorized instructor 
that is performed under instrument 
flight rules and a flight plan has been 
filed with an air traffic control facil-
ity, and involves— 

(A) A flight of 100 nautical miles 

along airways or by directed routing 
from an air traffic control facility; 

(B) An instrument approach at each 

airport; and 

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