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736 

14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 91.176 

of this part, and the requirements of that 
paragraph or section are not met at either of 
the following times: 

* * * * * 

§ 91.176

Straight-in landing operations 

below DA/DH or MDA using an en-
hanced flight vision system (EFVS) 
under IFR. 

(a)  EFVS operations to touchdown and 

rollout.  Unless otherwise authorized by 
the Administrator to use an MDA as a 
DA/DH with vertical navigation on an 
instrument approach procedure, or un-
less paragraph (d) of this section ap-
plies, no person may conduct an EFVS 
operation in an aircraft, except a mili-
tary aircraft of the United States, at 
any airport below the authorized DA/ 
DH to touchdown and rollout unless 
the minimums used for the particular 
approach procedure being flown include 
a DA or DH, and the following require-
ments are met: 

(1)  Equipment.  (i) The aircraft must 

be equipped with an operable EFVS 
that meets the applicable airworthi-
ness requirements. The EFVS must: 

(A) Have an electronic means to pro-

vide a display of the forward external 
scene topography (the applicable nat-
ural or manmade features of a place or 
region especially in a way to show 
their relative positions and elevation) 
through the use of imaging sensors, in-
cluding but not limited to forward- 
looking infrared, millimeter wave 
radiometry, millimeter wave radar, or 
low-light level image intensification. 

(B) Present EFVS sensor imagery, 

aircraft flight information, and flight 
symbology on a head up display, or an 
equivalent display, so that the im-
agery, information and symbology are 
clearly visible to the pilot flying in his 
or her normal position with the line of 
vision looking forward along the flight 
path. Aircraft flight information and 
flight symbology must consist of at 
least airspeed, vertical speed, aircraft 
attitude, heading, altitude, height 
above ground level such as that pro-
vided by a radio altimeter or other de-
vice capable of providing equivalent 
performance, command guidance as ap-
propriate for the approach to be flown, 
path deviation indications, flight path 
vector, and flight path angle reference 
cue. Additionally, for aircraft other 

than rotorcraft, the EFVS must dis-
play flare prompt or flare guidance. 

(C) Present the displayed EFVS sen-

sor imagery, attitude symbology, flight 
path vector, and flight path angle ref-
erence cue, and other cues, which are 
referenced to the EFVS sensor imagery 
and external scene topography, so that 
they are aligned with, and scaled to, 
the external view. 

(D) Display the flight path angle ref-

erence cue with a pitch scale. The 
flight path angle reference cue must be 
selectable by the pilot to the desired 
descent angle for the approach and be 
sufficient to monitor the vertical flight 
path of the aircraft. 

(E) Display the EFVS sensor im-

agery, aircraft flight information, and 
flight symbology such that they do not 
adversely obscure the pilot’s outside 
view or field of view through the cock-
pit window. 

(F) Have display characteristics, dy-

namics, and cues that are suitable for 
manual control of the aircraft to 
touchdown in the touchdown zone of 
the runway of intended landing and 
during rollout. 

(ii) When a minimum flightcrew of 

more than one pilot is required, the 
aircraft must be equipped with a dis-
play that provides the pilot monitoring 
with EFVS sensor imagery. Any sym-
bology displayed may not adversely ob-
scure the sensor imagery of the runway 
environment. 

(2)  Operations.  (i) The pilot con-

ducting the EFVS operation may not 
use circling minimums. 

(ii) Each required pilot flightcrew 

member must have adequate knowl-
edge of, and familiarity with, the air-
craft, the EFVS, and the procedures to 
be used. 

(iii) The aircraft must be equipped 

with, and the pilot flying must use, an 
operable EFVS that meets the equip-
ment requirements of paragraph (a)(1) 
of this section. 

(iv) When a minimum flightcrew of 

more than one pilot is required, the 
pilot monitoring must use the display 
specified in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) to mon-
itor and assess the safe conduct of the 
approach, landing, and rollout. 

(v) The aircraft must continuously be 

in a position from which a descent to a 
landing on the intended runway can be 

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kpayne on DSK54DXVN1OFR with $$_JOB