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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 

§ 23.2235 

(2) The weight and distribution of oc-

cupants, payload, and fuel. 

(d) Characteristics of airplane con-

trol systems, including range of motion 
and tolerances for control surfaces, 
high lift devices, or other moveable 

(e) Each critical altitude up to the 

maximum altitude. 

§ 23.2205

Interaction of systems and 


For airplanes equipped with systems 

that modify structural performance, 
alleviate the impact of this subpart’s 
requirements, or provide a means of 
compliance with this subpart, the ap-
plicant must account for the influence 
and failure of these systems when 
showing compliance with the require-
ments of this subpart. 






§ 23.2210

Structural design loads. 

(a) The applicant must: 
(1) Determine the applicable struc-

tural design loads resulting from likely 
externally or internally applied pres-
sures, forces, or moments that may 
occur in flight, ground and water oper-
ations, ground and water handling, and 
while the airplane is parked or moored. 

(2) Determine the loads required by 

paragraph (a)(1) of this section at all 
critical combinations of parameters, 
on and within the boundaries of the 
structural design envelope. 

(b) The magnitude and distribution of 

the applicable structural design loads 
required by this section must be based 
on physical principles. 

§ 23.2215

Flight load conditions. 

The applicant must determine the 

structural design loads resulting from 
the following flight conditions: 

(a) Atmospheric gusts where the 

magnitude and gradient of these gusts 
are based on measured gust statistics. 

(b) Symmetric and asymmetric ma-


(c) Asymmetric thrust resulting from 

the failure of a powerplant unit. 

§ 23.2220

Ground and water load con-


The applicant must determine the 

structural design loads resulting from 

taxi, takeoff, landing, and handling 
conditions on the applicable surface in 
normal and adverse attitudes and con-

§ 23.2225

Component loading condi-


The applicant must determine the 

structural design loads acting on: 

(a) Each engine mount and its sup-

porting structure such that both are 
designed to withstand loads resulting 

(1) Powerplant operation combined 

with flight gust and maneuver loads; 

(2) For non-reciprocating power-

plants, sudden powerplant stoppage. 

(b) Each flight control and high-lift 

surface, their associated system and 
supporting structure resulting from— 

(1) The inertia of each surface and 

mass balance attachment; 

(2) Flight gusts and maneuvers; 
(3) Pilot or automated system inputs; 
(4) System induced conditions, in-

cluding jamming and friction; and 

(5) Taxi, takeoff, and landing oper-

ations on the applicable surface, in-
cluding downwind taxi and gusts occur-
ring on the applicable surface. 

(c) A pressurized cabin resulting from 

the pressurization differential— 

(1) From zero up to the maximum re-

lief pressure combined with gust and 
maneuver loads; 

(2) From zero up to the maximum re-

lief pressure combined with ground and 
water loads if the airplane may land 
with the cabin pressurized; and 

(3) At the maximum relief pressure 

multiplied by 1.33, omitting all other 

§ 23.2230

Limit and ultimate loads. 

The applicant must determine— 
(a) The limit loads, which are equal 

to the structural design loads unless 
otherwise specified elsewhere in this 
part; and 

(b) The ultimate loads, which are 

equal to the limit loads multiplied by a 
1.5 factor of safety unless otherwise 
specified elsewhere in this part. 






§ 23.2235

Structural strength. 

The structure must support: 

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