183

Federal Aviation Administration, DOT

§ 23.2235

(2) The weight and distribution of oc-

cupants, payload, and fuel.

(d) Characteristics of airplane con-

trol systems, including range of motion

and tolerances for control surfaces,

high lift devices, or other moveable

surfaces.

(e) Each critical altitude up to the

maximum altitude.

**§ 23.2205**

**Interaction of systems and **

**structures. **

For airplanes equipped with systems

that modify structural performance,

alleviate the impact of this subpart’s

requirements, or provide a means of

compliance with this subpart, the ap-

plicant must account for the influence

and failure of these systems when

showing compliance with the require-

ments of this subpart.

S

TRUCTURAL

L

OADS

**§ 23.2210**

**Structural design loads. **

(a) The applicant must:

(1) Determine the applicable struc-

tural design loads resulting from likely

externally or internally applied pres-

sures, forces, or moments that may

occur in flight, ground and water oper-

ations, ground and water handling, and

while the airplane is parked or moored.

(2) Determine the loads required by

paragraph (a)(1) of this section at all

critical combinations of parameters,

on and within the boundaries of the

structural design envelope.

(b) The magnitude and distribution of

the applicable structural design loads

required by this section must be based

on physical principles.

**§ 23.2215**

**Flight load conditions. **

The applicant must determine the

structural design loads resulting from

the following flight conditions:

(a) Atmospheric gusts where the

magnitude and gradient of these gusts

are based on measured gust statistics.

(b) Symmetric and asymmetric ma-

neuvers.

(c) Asymmetric thrust resulting from

the failure of a powerplant unit.

**§ 23.2220**

**Ground and water load con-**

**ditions. **

The applicant must determine the

structural design loads resulting from

taxi, takeoff, landing, and handling

conditions on the applicable surface in

normal and adverse attitudes and con-

figurations.

**§ 23.2225**

**Component loading condi-**

**tions. **

The applicant must determine the

structural design loads acting on:

(a) Each engine mount and its sup-

porting structure such that both are

designed to withstand loads resulting

from—

(1) Powerplant operation combined

with flight gust and maneuver loads;

and

(2) For non-reciprocating power-

plants, sudden powerplant stoppage.

(b) Each flight control and high-lift

surface, their associated system and

supporting structure resulting from—

(1) The inertia of each surface and

mass balance attachment;

(2) Flight gusts and maneuvers;

(3) Pilot or automated system inputs;

(4) System induced conditions, in-

cluding jamming and friction; and

(5) Taxi, takeoff, and landing oper-

ations on the applicable surface, in-

cluding downwind taxi and gusts occur-

ring on the applicable surface.

(c) A pressurized cabin resulting from

the pressurization differential—

(1) From zero up to the maximum re-

lief pressure combined with gust and

maneuver loads;

(2) From zero up to the maximum re-

lief pressure combined with ground and

water loads if the airplane may land

with the cabin pressurized; and

(3) At the maximum relief pressure

multiplied by 1.33, omitting all other

loads.

**§ 23.2230**

**Limit and ultimate loads. **

The applicant must determine—

(a) The limit loads, which are equal

to the structural design loads unless

otherwise specified elsewhere in this

part; and

(b) The ultimate loads, which are

equal to the limit loads multiplied by a

1.5 factor of safety unless otherwise

specified elsewhere in this part.

S

TRUCTURAL

P

ERFORMANCE

**§ 23.2235**

**Structural strength. **

The structure must support:

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