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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 23.2160 

have controllable longitudinal and di-
rectional handling characteristics dur-
ing taxi, takeoff, and landing oper-

§ 23.2160

Vibration, buffeting, and 

high-speed characteristics. 

(a) Vibration and buffeting, for oper-

ations up to V




must not interfere 

with the control of the airplane or 
cause excessive fatigue to the 
flightcrew. Stall warning buffet within 
these limits is allowable. 

(b) For high-speed airplanes and all 

airplanes with a maximum operating 
altitude greater than 25,000 feet (7,620 
meters) pressure altitude, there must 
be no perceptible buffeting in cruise 
configuration at 1g and at any speed up 
to V




, except stall buffeting. 

(c) For high-speed airplanes, the ap-

plicant must determine the positive 
maneuvering load factors at which the 
onset of perceptible buffet occurs in 
the cruise configuration within the 
operational envelope. Likely inad-
vertent excursions beyond this bound-
ary must not result in structural dam-

(d) High-speed airplanes must have 

recovery characteristics that do not re-
sult in structural damage or loss of 
control, beginning at any likely speed 
up to V




, following— 

(1) An inadvertent speed increase; 


(2) A high-speed trim upset for air-

planes where dynamic pressure can im-
pair the longitudinal trim system oper-

§ 23.2165

Performance and flight char-

acteristics requirements for flight 
in icing conditions. 

(a) An applicant who requests certifi-

cation for flight in icing conditions de-
fined in part 1 of appendix C to part 25 
of this chapter, or an applicant who re-
quests certification for flight in these 
icing conditions and any additional at-
mospheric icing conditions, must show 
the following in the icing conditions 
for which certification is requested 
under normal operation of the ice pro-
tection system(s): 

(1) Compliance with each require-

ment of this subpart, except those ap-
plicable to spins and any that must be 
demonstrated at speeds in excess of— 

(i) 250 knots CAS; 
(ii) V




or V


; or 

(iii) A speed at which the applicant 

demonstrates the airframe will be free 
of ice accretion. 

(2) The means by which stall warning 

is provided to the pilot for flight in 
icing conditions and non-icing condi-
tions is the same. 

(b) If an applicant requests certifi-

cation for flight in icing conditions, 
the applicant must provide a means to 
detect any icing conditions for which 
certification is not requested and show 
the airplane’s ability to avoid or exit 
those conditions. 

(c) The applicant must develop an op-

erating limitation to prohibit inten-
tional flight, including takeoff and 
landing, into icing conditions for which 
the airplane is not certified to operate. 

Subpart C—Structures 

§ 23.2200

Structural design envelope. 

The applicant must determine the 

structural design envelope, which de-
scribes the range and limits of airplane 
design and operational parameters for 
which the applicant will show compli-
ance with the requirements of this sub-
part. The applicant must account for 
all airplane design and operational pa-
rameters that affect structural loads, 
strength, durability, and 
aeroelasticity, including: 

(a) Structural design airspeeds, land-

ing descent speeds, and any other air-
speed limitation at which the applicant 
must show compliance to the require-
ments of this subpart. The structural 
design airspeeds must— 

(1) Be sufficiently greater than the 

stalling speed of the airplane to safe-
guard against loss of control in turbu-
lent air; and 

(2) Provide sufficient margin for the 

establishment of practical operational 
limiting airspeeds. 

(b) Design maneuvering load factors 

not less than those, which service his-
tory shows, may occur within the 
structural design envelope. 

(c) Inertial properties including 

weight, center of gravity, and mass 
moments of inertia, accounting for— 

(1) Each critical weight from the air-

plane empty weight to the maximum 
weight; and 

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