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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 23.2120 

(1) Stall speed safety margins; 
(2) Minimum control speeds; and 
(3) Climb gradients. 
(b) For single engine airplanes and 

levels 1, 2, and 3 low-speed multiengine 
airplanes, takeoff performance includes 
the determination of ground roll and 
initial climb distance to 50 feet (15 me-
ters) above the takeoff surface. 

(c) For levels 1, 2, and 3 high-speed 

multiengine airplanes, and level 4 mul-
tiengine airplanes, takeoff performance 
includes a determination the following 
distances after a sudden critical loss of 

(1) An aborted takeoff at critical 


(2) Ground roll and initial climb to 35 

feet (11 meters) above the takeoff sur-
face; and 

(3) Net takeoff flight path. 

§ 23.2120

Climb requirements. 

The design must comply with the fol-

lowing minimum climb performance 
out of ground effect: 

(a) With all engines operating and in 

the initial climb configuration— 

(1) For levels 1 and 2 low-speed air-

planes, a climb gradient of 8.3 percent 
for landplanes and 6.7 percent for sea-
planes and amphibians; and 

(2) For levels 1 and 2 high-speed air-

planes, all level 3 airplanes, and level 4 
single-engines a climb gradient after 
takeoff of 4 percent. 

(b) After a critical loss of thrust on 

multiengine airplanes— 

(1) For levels 1 and 2 low-speed air-

planes that do not meet single-engine 
crashworthiness requirements, a climb 
gradient of 1.5 percent at a pressure al-
titude of 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) in the 
cruise configuration(s); 

(2) For levels 1 and 2 high-speed air-

planes, and level 3 low-speed airplanes, 
a 1 percent climb gradient at 400 feet 
(122 meters) above the takeoff surface 
with the landing gear retracted and 
flaps in the takeoff configuration(s); 

(3) For level 3 high-speed airplanes 

and all level 4 airplanes, a 2 percent 
climb gradient at 400 feet (122 meters) 
above the takeoff surface with the 
landing gear retracted and flaps in the 
approach configuration(s). 

(c) For a balked landing, a climb gra-

dient of 3 percent without creating 

undue pilot workload with the landing 
gear extended and flaps in the landing 

§ 23.2125

Climb information. 

(a) The applicant must determine 

climb performance at each weight, alti-
tude, and ambient temperature within 
the operating limitations— 

(1) For all single-engine airplanes; 
(2) For levels 1 and 2 high-speed mul-

tiengine airplanes and level 3 multien-
gine airplanes, following a critical loss 
of thrust on takeoff in the initial climb 
configuration; and 

(3) For all multiengine airplanes, 

during the enroute phase of flight with 
all engines operating and after a crit-
ical loss of thrust in the cruise configu-

(b) The applicant must determine the 

glide performance for single-engine air-
planes after a complete loss of thrust. 

§ 23.2130


The applicant must determine the 

following, for standard temperatures at 
critical combinations of weight and al-
titude within the operational limits: 

(a) The distance, starting from a 

height of 50 feet (15 meters) above the 
landing surface, required to land and 
come to a stop. 

(b) The approach and landing speeds, 

configurations, and procedures, which 
allow a pilot of average skill to land 
within the published landing distance 
consistently and without causing dam-
age or injury, and which allow for a 
safe transition to the balked landing 
conditions of this part accounting for: 

(1) Stall speed safety margin; and 
(2) Minimum control speeds. 






§ 23.2135


(a) The airplane must be controllable 

and maneuverable, without requiring 
exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or 
strength, within the operating enve-

(1) At all loading conditions for 

which certification is requested; 

(2) During all phases of flight; 
(3) With likely reversible flight con-

trol or propulsion system failure; and 

(4) During configuration changes. 

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