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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 

§ 23.2115 

(2) Level 2—for airplanes with a max-

imum seating configuration of 2 to 6 

(3) Level 3—for airplanes with a max-

imum seating configuration of 7 to 9 

(4) Level 4—for airplanes with a max-

imum seating configuration of 10 to 19 

(c) Airplane performance levels are: 
(1) Low speed—for airplanes with a 



and V


≤  250 Knots Calibrated 

Airspeed (KCAS) and a M


≤ 0.6. 

(2) High speed—for airplanes with a 



or V


> 250 KCAS or a M


> 0.6. 

(d) Airplanes not certified for aero-

batics may be used to perform any ma-
neuver incident to normal flying, in-

(1) Stalls (except whip stalls); and 
(2) Lazy eights, chandelles, and steep 

turns, in which the angle of bank is not 
more than 60 degrees. 

(e) Airplanes certified for aerobatics 

may be used to perform maneuvers 
without limitations, other than those 
limitations established under subpart 
G of this part. 

§ 23.2010

Accepted means of compli-


(a) An applicant must comply with 

this part using a means of compliance, 
which may include consensus stand-
ards, accepted by the Administrator. 

(b) An applicant requesting accept-

ance of a means of compliance must 
provide the means of compliance to the 
FAA in a form and manner acceptable 
to the Administrator. 

Subpart B—Flight 




§ 23.2100

Weight and center of gravity. 

(a) The applicant must determine 

limits for weights and centers of grav-
ity that provide for the safe operation 
of the airplane. 

(b) The applicant must comply with 

each requirement of this subpart at 
critical combinations of weight and 
center of gravity within the airplane’s 
range of loading conditions using toler-
ances acceptable to the Administrator. 

(c) The condition of the airplane at 

the time of determining its empty 

weight and center of gravity must be 
well defined and easily repeatable. 

§ 23.2105

Performance data. 

(a) Unless otherwise prescribed, an 

airplane must meet the performance 
requirements of this subpart in— 

(1) Still air and standard atmospheric 

conditions at sea level for all airplanes; 

(2) Ambient atmospheric conditions 

within the operating envelope for lev-
els 1 and 2 high-speed and levels 3 and 
4 airplanes. 

(b) Unless otherwise prescribed, the 

applicant must develop the perform-
ance data required by this subpart for 
the following conditions: 

(1) Airport altitudes from sea level to 

10,000 feet (3,048 meters); and 

(2) Temperatures above and below 

standard day temperature that are 
within the range of operating limita-
tions, if those temperatures could have 
a negative effect on performance. 

(c) The procedures used for deter-

mining takeoff and landing distances 
must be executable consistently by pi-
lots of average skill in atmospheric 
conditions expected to be encountered 
in service. 

(d) Performance data determined in 

accordance with paragraph (b) of this 
section must account for losses due to 
atmospheric conditions, cooling needs, 
and other demands on power sources. 

§ 23.2110

Stall speed. 

The applicant must determine the 

airplane stall speed or the minimum 
steady flight speed for each flight con-
figuration used in normal operations, 
including takeoff, climb, cruise, de-
scent, approach, and landing. The stall 
speed or minimum steady flight speed 
determination must account for the 
most adverse conditions for each flight 
configuration with power set at— 

(a) Idle or zero thrust for propulsion 

systems that are used primarily for 
thrust; and 

(b) A nominal thrust for propulsion 

systems that are used for thrust, flight 
control, and/or high-lift systems. 

§ 23.2115

Takeoff performance. 

(a) The applicant must determine air-

plane takeoff performance accounting 

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