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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 23.1529 

flight data recorder without jeopard-
izing service to essential or emergency 

(ii) It remains powered for as long as 

possible without jeopardizing emer-
gency operation of the airplane; 

(4) There is an aural or visual means 

for preflight checking of the recorder 
for proper recording of data in the stor-
age medium; 

(5) Except for recorders powered sole-

ly by the engine-driven electrical gen-
erator system, there is an automatic 
means to simultaneously stop a re-
corder that has a data erasure feature 
and prevent each erasure feature from 
functioning, within 10 minutes after 
crash impact; 

(6) Any single electrical failure exter-

nal to the recorder does not disable 
both the cockpit voice recorder and the 
flight data recorder; and 

(7) It is in a separate container from 

the cockpit voice recorder when both 
are required. If used to comply with 
only the flight data recorder require-
ments, a combination unit may be in-
stalled. If a combination unit is in-
stalled as a cockpit voice recorder to 
comply with § 23.1457(e)(2), a combina-
tion unit must be used to comply with 
this flight data recorder requirement. 

(b) Each non-ejectable record con-

tainer must be located and mounted so 
as to minimize the probability of con-
tainer rupture resulting from crash im-
pact and subsequent damage to the 
record from fire. In meeting this re-
quirement, the record container must 
be located as far aft as practicable, but 
need not be aft of the pressurized com-
partment, and may not be where aft- 
mounted engines may crush the con-
tainer upon impact. 

(c) A correlation must be established 

between the flight recorder readings of 
airspeed, altitude, and heading and the 
corresponding readings (taking into ac-
count correction factors) of the first pi-
lot’s instruments. The correlation 
must cover the airspeed range over 
which the airplane is to be operated, 
the range of altitude to which the air-
plane is limited, and 360 degrees of 
heading. Correlation may be estab-
lished on the ground as appropriate. 

(d) Each recorder container must— 
(1) Be either bright orange or bright 


(2) Have reflective tape affixed to its 

external surface to facilitate its loca-
tion under water; and 

(3) Have an underwater locating de-

vice, when required by the operating 
rules of this chapter, on or adjacent to 
the container, which is secured in such 
a manner that they are not likely to be 
separated during crash impact. 

(e) Any novel or unique design or 

operational characteristics of the air-
craft shall be evaluated to determine if 
any dedicated parameters must be re-
corded on flight recorders in addition 
to or in place of existing requirements. 

§ 23.1529

Instructions for continued 


The applicant must prepare Instruc-

tions for Continued Airworthiness, in 
accordance with appendix A of this 
part, that are acceptable to the Admin-
istrator. The instructions may be in-
complete at type certification if a pro-
gram exists to ensure their completion 
prior to delivery of the first airplane or 
issuance of a standard certificate of 
airworthiness, whichever occurs later. 

Subpart A—General 

§ 23.2000

Applicability and definitions. 

(a) This part prescribes airworthiness 

standards for the issuance of type cer-
tificates, and changes to those certifi-
cates, for airplanes in the normal cat-

(b) For the purposes of this part, the 

following definition applies: 

Continued safe flight and landing 

means an airplane is capable of contin-
ued controlled flight and landing, pos-
sibly using emergency procedures, 
without requiring exceptional pilot 
skill or strength. Upon landing, some 
airplane damage may occur as a result 
of a failure condition. 

§ 23.2005

Certification of normal cat-

egory airplanes. 

(a) Certification in the normal cat-

egory applies to airplanes with a pas-
senger-seating configuration of 19 or 
less and a maximum certificated take-
off weight of 19,000 pounds or less. 

(b) Airplane certification levels are: 
(1) Level 1—for airplanes with a max-

imum seating configuration of 0 to 1 

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