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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 

§ 23.1459 

listed in paragraphs (c)(1), (2), and (4) of 
this section must be recorded without 
interruption irrespective of the posi-
tion of the interphone-transmitter key 
switch. The design shall ensure that 
sidetone for the flightcrew is produced 
only when the interphone, public ad-
dress system, or radio transmitters are 
in use. 

(d) Each cockpit voice recorder must 

be installed so that: 

(1)(i) It receives its electrical power 

from the bus that provides the max-
imum reliability for operation of the 
cockpit voice recorder without jeopard-
izing service to essential or emergency 

(ii) It remains powered for as long as 

possible without jeopardizing emer-
gency operation of the airplane. 

(2) There is an automatic means to 

simultaneously stop the recorder and 
prevent each erasure feature from func-
tioning, within 10 minutes after crash 

(3) There is an aural or visual means 

for preflight checking of the recorder 
for proper operation. 

(4) Any single electrical failure exter-

nal to the recorder does not disable 
both the cockpit voice recorder and the 
flight data recorder. 

(5) It has an independent power 


(i) That provides 10 ±1 minutes of 

electrical power to operate both the 
cockpit voice recorder and cockpit- 
mounted area microphone; 

(ii) That is located as close as prac-

ticable to the cockpit voice recorder; 

(iii) To which the cockpit voice re-

corder and cockpit-mounted area 
microphone are switched automati-
cally in the event that all other power 
to the cockpit voice recorder is inter-
rupted either by normal shutdown or 
by any other loss of power to the elec-
trical power bus. 

(6) It is in a separate container from 

the flight data recorder when both are 
required. If used to comply with only 
the cockpit voice recorder require-
ments, a combination unit may be in-

(e) The recorder container must be 

located and mounted to minimize the 
probability of rupture of the container 
as a result of crash impact and con-

sequent heat damage to the recorder 
from fire. 

(1) Except as provided in paragraph 

(e)(2) of this section, the recorder con-
tainer must be located as far aft as 
practicable, but need not be outside of 
the pressurized compartment, and may 
not be located where aft-mounted en-
gines may crush the container during 

(2) If two separate combination dig-

ital flight data recorder and cockpit 
voice recorder units are installed in-
stead of one cockpit voice recorder and 
one digital flight data recorder, the 
combination unit that is installed to 
comply with the cockpit voice recorder 
requirements may be located near the 

(f) If the cockpit voice recorder has a 

bulk erasure device, the installation 
must be designed to minimize the prob-
ability of inadvertent operation and ac-
tuation of the device during crash im-

(g) Each recorder container must— 
(1) Be either bright orange or bright 


(2) Have reflective tape affixed to its 

external surface to facilitate its loca-
tion under water; and 

(3) Have an underwater locating de-

vice, when required by the operating 
rules of this chapter, on or adjacent to 
the container, which is secured in such 
manner that they are not likely to be 
separated during crash impact. 

§ 23.1459

Flight data recorders. 

(a) Each flight recorder required by 

the operating rules of this chapter 
must be installed so that— 

(1) It is supplied with airspeed, alti-

tude, and directional data obtained 
from sources that meet the aircraft 
level system requirements and the 
functionality specified in § 23.2500; 

(2) The vertical acceleration sensor is 

rigidly attached, and located longitu-
dinally either within the approved cen-
ter of gravity limits of the airplane, or 
at a distance forward or aft of these 
limits that does not exceed 25 percent 
of the airplane’s mean aerodynamic 

(3)(i) It receives its electrical power 

from the bus that provides the max-
imum reliability for operation of the 

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