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14 CFR Ch. I (1–1–18 Edition) 

§ 23.2600 

protect the occupants and airplane 
from uncontained fragments. 

Subpart G—Flightcrew Interface 

and Other Information 

§ 23.2600

Flightcrew interface. 

(a) The pilot compartment, its equip-

ment, and its arrangement to include 
pilot view, must allow each pilot to 
perform his or her duties, including 
taxi, takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, 
approach, landing, and perform any 
maneuvers within the operating enve-
lope of the airplane, without excessive 
concentration, skill, alertness, or fa-

(b) The applicant must install flight, 

navigation, surveillance, and power-
plant controls and displays so qualified 
flightcrew can monitor and perform de-
fined tasks associated with the in-
tended functions of systems and equip-
ment. The system and equipment de-
sign must minimize flightcrew errors, 
which could result in additional haz-

(c) For level 4 airplanes, the 

flightcrew interface design must allow 
for continued safe flight and landing 
after the loss of vision through any one 
of the windshield panels. 

§ 23.2605

Installation and operation. 

(a) Each item of installed equipment 

related to the flightcrew interface 
must be labelled, if applicable, as to it 
identification, function, or operating 
limitations, or any combination of 
these factors. 

(b) There must be a discernible 

means of providing system operating 
parameters required to operate the air-
plane, including warnings, cautions, 
and normal indications to the respon-
sible crewmember. 

(c) Information concerning an unsafe 

system operating condition must be 
provided in a timely manner to the 
crewmember responsible for taking 
corrective action. The information 
must be clear enough to avoid likely 
crewmember errors. 

§ 23.2610

Instrument markings, control 

markings, and placards. 

(a) Each airplane must display in a 

conspicuous manner any placard and 

instrument marking necessary for op-

(b) The design must clearly indicate 

the function of each cockpit control, 
other than primary flight controls. 

(c) The applicant must include in-

strument marking and placard infor-
mation in the Airplane Flight Manual. 

§ 23.2615

Flight, navigation, and pow-

erplant instruments. 

(a) Installed systems must provide 

the flightcrew member who sets or 
monitors parameters for the flight, 
navigation, and powerplant, the infor-
mation necessary to do so during each 
phase of flight. This information 

(1) Be presented in a manner that the 

crewmember can monitor the param-
eter and determine trends, as needed, 
to operate the airplane; and 

(2) Include limitations, unless the 

limitation cannot be exceeded in all in-
tended operations. 

(b) Indication systems that integrate 

the display of flight or powerplant pa-
rameters to operate the airplane or are 
required by the operating rules of this 
chapter must— 

(1) Not inhibit the primary display of 

flight or powerplant parameters needed 
by any flightcrew member in any nor-
mal mode of operation; and 

(2) In combination with other sys-

tems, be designed and installed so in-
formation essential for continued safe 
flight and landing will be available to 
the flightcrew in a timely manner after 
any single failure or probable combina-
tion of failures. 

§ 23.2620

Airplane flight manual. 

The applicant must provide an Air-

plane Flight Manual that must be de-
livered with each airplane. 

(a) The Airplane Flight Manual must 

contain the following information— 

(1) Airplane operating limitations; 
(2) Airplane operating procedures; 
(3) Performance information; 
(4) Loading information; and 
(5) Other information that is nec-

essary for safe operation because of de-
sign, operating, or handling character-

(b) The following sections of the Air-

plane Flight Manual must be approved 

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