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Federal Aviation Administration, DOT 

§ 23.2550 

§ 23.2520

High-intensity Radiated 

Fields (HIRF) protection. 

(a) Each electrical and electronic 

systems that perform a function, the 
failure of which would prevent the con-
tinued safe flight and landing of the 
airplane, must be designed and in-
stalled such that— 

(1) The function at the airplane level 

is not adversely affected during and 
after the time the airplane is exposed 
to the HIRF environment; and 

(2) The system recovers normal oper-

ation of that function in a timely man-
ner after the airplane is exposed to the 
HIRF environment, unless the system’s 
recovery conflicts with other oper-
ational or functional requirements of 
the system. 

(b) For airplanes approved for IFR 

operations, each electrical and elec-
tronic system that performs a func-
tion, the failure of which would signifi-
cantly reduce the capability of the air-
plane or the ability of the flightcrew to 
respond to an adverse operating condi-
tion, must be designed and installed 
such that the system recovers normal 
operation of that function in a timely 
manner after the airplane is exposed to 
the HIRF environment. 

§ 23.2525

System power generation, 

storage, and distribution. 

The power generation, storage, and 

distribution for any system must be de-
signed and installed to— 

(a) Supply the power required for op-

eration of connected loads during all 
intended operating conditions; 

(b) Ensure no single failure or mal-

function of any one power supply, dis-
tribution system, or other utilization 
system will prevent the system from 
supplying the essential loads required 
for continued safe flight and landing; 

(c) Have enough capacity, if the pri-

mary source fails, to supply essential 
loads, including non-continuous essen-
tial loads for the time needed to com-
plete the function required for contin-
ued safe flight and landing. 

§ 23.2530

External and cockpit light-


(a) The applicant must design and in-

stall all lights to minimize any adverse 

effects on the performance of 
flightcrew duties. 

(b) Any position and anti-collision 

lights, if required by part 91 of this 
chapter, must have the intensities, 
flash rate, colors, fields of coverage, 
and other characteristics to provide 
sufficient time for another aircraft to 
avoid a collision. 

(c) Any position lights, if required by 

part 91 of this chapter, must include a 
red light on the left side of the air-
plane, a green light on the right side of 
the airplane, spaced laterally as far 
apart as practicable, and a white light 
facing aft, located on an aft portion of 
the airplane or on the wing tips. 

(d) Any taxi and landing lights must 

be designed and installed so they pro-
vide sufficient light for night oper-

(e) For seaplanes or amphibian air-

planes, riding lights must provide a 
white light visible in clear atmospheric 

§ 23.2535

Safety equipment. 

Safety and survival equipment, re-

quired by the operating rules of this 
chapter, must be reliable, readily ac-
cessible, easily identifiable, and clearly 
marked to identify its method of oper-

§ 23.2540

Flight in icing conditions. 

An applicant who requests certifi-

cation for flight in icing conditions de-
fined in part 1 of appendix C to part 25 
of this chapter, or an applicant who re-
quests certification for flight in these 
icing conditions and any additional at-
mospheric icing conditions, must show 
the following in the icing conditions 
for which certification is requested: 

(a) The ice protection system pro-

vides for safe operation. 

(b) The airplane design must provide 

protection from stalling when the 
autopilot is operating. 

§ 23.2545

Pressurized systems ele-


Pressurized systems must withstand 

appropriate proof and burst pressures. 

§ 23.2550

Equipment containing high- 

energy rotors. 

Equipment containing high-energy 

rotors must be designed or installed to 

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