Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), page 72

Index   71 -- Page 72 -- 73


(6) Pilots should be vigilant to see and
avoid other traffic when near VFR waypoints. With
the increased use of GPS navigation and accuracy,
expect increased traffic near VFR waypoints.
Regardless of the class of airspace, monitor the
available ATC frequency for traffic information on
other aircraft operating in the vicinity. See Paragraph
7-5-2, VFR in Congested Areas, for more

2. IFR Use of GPS
(a) General Requirements. Authorization
to conduct any GPS operation under IFR requires:

(1) GPS navigation equipment used for IFR
operations must be approved in accordance with the
requirements specified in Technical Standard Order
(TSO) TSO-C129(), TSO-C196(), TSO-C145(), or
TSO-C146(), and the installation must be done in
accordance with Advisory Circular AC 20-138(),
Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Naviga-
tion Systems. Equipment approved in accordance
with TSO-C115a does not meet the requirements of
TSO-C129. Visual flight rules (VFR) and hand-held
GPS systems are not authorized for IFR navigation,
instrument approaches, or as a principal instrument

flight reference.

(2) Aircraft using un-augmented GPS
(TSO-C129() or TSO-C196()) for navigation under
IFR must be equipped with an alternate approved and
operational means of navigation suitable for
navigating the proposed route of flight. (Examples of
alternate navigation equipment include VOR or
DME/DME/IRU capability). Active monitoring of
alternative navigation equipment is not required
when RAIM is available for integrity monitoring.
Active monitoring of an alternate means of

capability is lost.

(3) Procedures must be established for use
in the event that the loss of RAIM capability is
predicted to occur. In situations where RAIM is
predicted to be unavailable, the flight must rely on
other approved navigation equipment, re-route to
where RAIM is available, delay departure, or cancel
the flight.

(4) The GPS operation must be conducted
in accordance with the FAA-approved aircraft flight
manual (AFM) or flight manual supplement. Flight

crew members must be thoroughly familiar with the
particular GPS equipment installed in the aircraft, the
receiver operation manual, and the AFM or flight
manual supplement. Operation, receiver presenta-
tion and capabilities of GPS equipment vary. Due to
these differences, operation of GPS receivers of
different brands, or even models of the same brand,
under IFR should not be attempted without thorough
operational knowledge. Most receivers have a
built-in simulator mode, which allows the pilot to
become familiar with operation prior to attempting
operation in the aircraft.

(5) Aircraft navigating by IFR-approved
GPS are considered to be performance-based
navigation (PBN) aircraft and have special equip-
ment suffixes. File the appropriate equipment suffix
in accordance with TBL 5-1-3 on the ATC flight
plan. If GPS avionics become inoperative, the pilot
should advise ATC and amend the equipment suffix.

(6) Prior to any GPS IFR operation, the
pilot must review appropriate NOTAMs and
aeronautical information. (See GPS NOTAMs/Aero-
nautical Information).

(b) Database Requirements. The onboard

navigation data must be current and appropriate for
the region of intended operation and should include
the navigation aids, waypoints, and relevant coded
terminal airspace procedures for the departure,
arrival, and alternate airfields.

(1) Further database guidance for terminal
and en route requirements may be found in AC
90-100(), U.S. Terminal and En Route Area
Navigation (RNAV) Operations.

(2) Further database guidance on Required
Navigation Performance (RNP) instrument approach

operations, RNP terminal, and RNP en route
requirements may be found in AC 90-105(), Approval
Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric
Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace

(3) All approach procedures to be flown
must be retrievable from the current airborne
navigation database supplied by the equipment
manufacturer or other FAA-approved source. The
system must be able to retrieve the procedure by name
from the aircraft navigation database, not just as a

1-1-18 Navigation Aids

Page 72 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM.pdf)
AIM: Official Guide to Basic Flight Information and ATC Procedures

Index   71 -- Page 72 -- 73