Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), page 71

Index   70 -- Page 71 -- 72


IFR operations and should be updated for all other
operations. However, there is no requirement for
databases to be updated for VFR navigation. It is not
recommended to use a moving map with an outdated
database in and around critical airspace. Pilots using
an outdated database should verify waypoints using
current aeronautical products; for example, Chart
Supplement U.S., Sectional Chart, or En Route

(3) Antenna Location. The antenna loca-

tion for GPS receivers used for IFR and VFR

operations may differ. VFR antennae are typically

placed for convenience more than performance,

while IFR installations ensure a clear view is
provided with the satellites. Antennae not providing
a clear view have a greater opportunity to lose the
satellite navigational signal. This is especially true
in the case of hand-held GPS receivers. Typically,
suction cups are used to place the GPS antennas on
the inside of cockpit windows. While this method has
great utility, the antenna location is limited to the
cockpit or cabin which rarely provides a clear view
of all available satellites. Consequently, signal losses
may occur due to aircraft structure blocking satellite
signals, causing a loss of navigation capability. These
losses, coupled with a lack of RAIM capability, could
present erroneous position and navigation informa-
tion with no warning to the pilot. While the use of a
hand-held GPS for VFR operations is not limited by
regulation, modification of the aircraft, such as
installing a panel- or yoke-mounted holder, is
governed by 14 CFR Part 43. Consult with your
mechanic to ensure compliance with the regulation

and safe installation.

(d) Do not solely rely on GPS for VFR
navigation. No design standard of accuracy or
integrity is used for a VFR GPS receiver. VFR GPS

receivers should be used in conjunction with other

forms of navigation during VFR operations to ensure

a correct route of flight is maintained. Minimize

head-down time in the aircraft by being familiar with

your GPS receiver's operation and by keeping eyes

outside scanning for traffic, terrain, and obstacles.

(e) VFR Waypoints
(1) VFR waypoints provide VFR pilots
with a supplementary tool to assist with position
awareness while navigating visually in aircraft
equipped with area navigation receivers. VFR
waypoints should be used as a tool to supplement

current navigation procedures. The uses of VFR
waypoints include providing navigational aids for
pilots unfamiliar with an area, waypoint definition of
existing reporting points, enhanced navigation in and
around Class B and Class C airspace, and enhanced
navigation around Special Use Airspace. VFR pilots
should rely on appropriate and current aeronautical
charts published specifically for visual navigation. If
operating in a terminal area, pilots should take
advantage of the Terminal Area Chart available for

that area, if published. The use of VFR waypoints

does not relieve the pilot of any responsibility to

comply with the operational requirements of 14 CFR

Part 91.

(2) VFR waypoint names (for computer-
entry and flight plans) consist of five letters
beginning with the letters "VP" and are retrievable
from navigation databases. The VFR waypoint
names are not intended to be pronounceable, and they
are not for use in ATC communications. On VFR
charts, stand-alone VFR waypoints will be portrayed
using the same four-point star symbol used for IFR
waypoints. VFR waypoints collocated with visual
check points on the chart will be identified by small
magenta flag symbols. VFR waypoints collocated
with visual check points will be pronounceable based
on the name of the visual check point and may be used
for ATC communications. Each VFR waypoint name
will appear in parentheses adjacent to the geographic
location on the chart. Latitude/longitude data for all
established VFR waypoints may be found in the
appropriate regional Chart Supplement U.S.

(3) VFR waypoints may not be used on IFR

flight plans. VFR waypoints are not recognized by the
IFR system and will be rejected for IFR routing

(4) Pilots may use the five-letter identifier

as a waypoint in the route of flight section on a VFR

flight plan. Pilots may use the VFR waypoints only

when operating under VFR conditions. The point

may represent an intended course change or describe

the planned route of flight. This VFR filing would be

similar to how a VOR would be used in a route of
(5) VFR waypoints intended for use during
flight should be loaded into the receiver while on the
ground. Once airborne, pilots should avoid program-
ming routes or VFR waypoint chains into their

Navigation Aids 1-1-17

Page 71 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM.pdf)
AIM: Official Guide to Basic Flight Information and ATC Procedures

Index   70 -- Page 71 -- 72