leader and the pilots of the other aircraft in the flight.
This includes transition periods when aircraft within
the formation are maneuvering to attain separation
from each other to effect individual control and
during join-up and breakaway.
a. A standard formation is one in which a
proximity of no more than 1 mile laterally or
longitudinally and within 100 feet vertically from the
flight leader is maintained by each wingman.
b. Nonstandard formations are those operating
under any of the following conditions:
1. When the flight leader has requested and ATC
has approved other than standard formation
2. When operating within an authorized altitude
reservation (ALTRV) or under the provisions of a
letter of agreement.
3. When the operations are conducted in
airspace specifically designed for a special activity.
(See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(See REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE.)
FREEZE/FROZEN- Terms used in referring to
arrivals which have been assigned ACLTs and to the
lists in which they are displayed.
FREEZE CALCULATED LANDING TIME- A
dynamic parameter number of minutes prior to the
meter fix calculated time of arrival for each aircraft
when the TCLT is frozen and becomes an ACLT (i.e.,
the VTA is updated and consequently the TCLT is
modified as appropriate until FCLT minutes prior to
meter fix calculated time of arrival, at which time
updating is suspended and an ACLT and a frozen
meter fix crossing time (MFT) is assigned).
FREEZE HORIZON- The time or point at which an
aircraft's STA becomes fixed and no longer fluctuates
with each radar update. This setting ensures a
constant time for each aircraft, necessary for the
metering controller to plan his/her delay technique.
This setting can be either in distance from the meter
fix or a prescribed flying time to the meter fix.
FREEZE SPEED PARAMETER- A speed adapted
for each aircraft to determine fast and slow aircraft.
Fast aircraft freeze on parameter FCLT and slow
aircraft freeze on parameter MLDI.
FRICTION MEASUREMENT- A measurement of
the friction characteristics of the runway pavement
surface using continuous self-watering friction
measurement equipment in accordance with the
specifications, procedures and schedules contained
in AC 150/5320-12, Measurement, Construction,
and Maintenance of Skid Resistant Airport Pavement
(See FLIGHT STANDARDS DISTRICT OFFICE.)
(See FREEZE SPEED PARAMETER.)
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.)
FUEL DUMPING- Airborne release of usable fuel.
This does not include the dropping of fuel tanks.
(See JETTISONING OF EXTERNAL STORES.)
FUEL REMAINING- A phrase used by either pilots
or controllers when relating to the fuel remaining on
board until actual fuel exhaustion. When transmitting
such information in response to either a controller
question or pilot initiated cautionary advisory to air
traffic control, pilots will state the APPROXIMATE
NUMBER OF MINUTES the flight can continue
with the fuel remaining. All reserve fuel SHOULD
BE INCLUDED in the time stated, as should an
allowance for established fuel gauge system error.
FUEL SIPHONING- Unintentional release of fuel
caused by overflow, puncture, loose cap, etc.
(See FUEL SIPHONING.)
(See DIGITAL TARGET)
FUSION [STARS/CARTS]- the combination of all
available surveillance sources (airport surveillance
radar [ASR], air route surveillance radar [ARSR],
ADS-B, etc.) into the display of a single tracked
target for air traffic control separation services.
FUSION is the equivalent of the current
single-sensor radar display. FUSION performance is
characteristic of a single-sensor radar display system.
Terminal areas use mono-pulse secondary surveil-
lance radar (ASR 9, Mode S or ASR 11, MSSR).