Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
according to the trajectory associated with the
aircraft's Current Plan.
CONFORMANCE REGION- A volume, bounded
laterally, vertically, and longitudinally, within which
an aircraft must be at a given time in order to be in
conformance with the Current Plan Trajectory for that
aircraft. At a given time, the conformance region is
determined by the simultaneous application of the
lateral, vertical, and longitudinal conformance
bounds for the aircraft at the position defined by time
and aircraft's trajectory.
CONSOLAN- A low frequency, long-distance
NAVAID used principally for transoceanic naviga-
a. Establish communication with (followed by the
name of the facility and, if appropriate, the frequency
to be used).
b. A flight condition wherein the pilot ascertains
the attitude of his/her aircraft and navigates by visual
reference to the surface.
(See CONTACT APPROACH.)
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
CONTACT APPROACH- An approach wherein an
aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having an air traffic
control authorization, operating clear of clouds with
at least 1 mile flight visibility and a reasonable
expectation of continuing to the destination airport in
those conditions, may deviate from the instrument
approach procedure and proceed to the destination
airport by visual reference to the surface. This
approach will only be authorized when requested by
the pilot and the reported ground visibility at the
destination airport is at least 1 statute mile.
(Refer to AIM.)
CONTAMINATED RUNWAY- A runway is
considered contaminated whenever standing water,
ice, snow, slush, frost in any form, heavy rubber, or
other substances are present. A runway is contami-
nated with respect to rubber deposits or other
friction-degrading substances when the average
friction value for any 500-foot segment of the runway
within the ALD fails below the recommended
minimum friction level and the average friction value
in the adjacent 500-foot segments falls below the
maintenance planning friction level.
CONTERMINOUS U.S.- The 48 adjoining States
and the District of Columbia.
CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES- The 49 States
located on the continent of North America and the
District of Columbia.
CONTINUE- When used as a control instruction
should be followed by another word or words
clarifying what is expected of the pilot. Example:
"continue taxi," "continue descent," "continue
CONTROL AREA [ICAO]- A controlled airspace
extending upwards from a specified limit above the
CONTROL SECTOR- An airspace area of defined
horizontal and vertical dimensions for which a
controller or group of controllers has air traffic
control responsibility, normally within an air route
traffic control center or an approach control facility.
Sectors are established based on predominant traffic
flows, altitude strata, and controller workload.
Pilot-communications during operations within a
sector are normally maintained on discrete frequen-
cies assigned to the sector.
(See DISCRETE FREQUENCY.)
CONTROL SLASH- A radar beacon slash repre-
senting the actual position of the associated aircraft.
Normally, the control slash is the one closest to the
interrogating radar beacon site. When ARTCC radar
is operating in narrowband (digitized) mode, the
control slash is converted to a target symbol.
CONTROLLED AIRSPACE- An airspace of
defined dimensions within which air traffic control
service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights
in accordance with the airspace classification.
a. Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers
Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E
b. Controlled airspace is also that airspace within
which all aircraft operators are subject to certain pilot
qualifications, operating rules, and equipment
requirements in 14 CFR Part 91 (for specific
operating requirements, please refer to 14 CFR
Part 91). For IFR operations in any class of controlled
airspace, a pilot must file an IFR flight plan and
receive an appropriate ATC clearance. Each Class B,
Class C, and Class D airspace area designated for an
airport contains at least one primary airport around