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Section 5. Potential Flight Hazards
7-5-1. Accident Cause Factors
a. The 10 most frequent cause factors for general
aviation accidents that involve the pilot-in-command
1. Inadequate preflight preparation and/or
2. Failure to obtain and/or maintain flying
3. Failure to maintain direction control.
4. Improper level off.
5. Failure to see and avoid objects or
6. Mismanagement of fuel.
7. Improper inflight decisions or planning.
8. Misjudgment of distance and speed.
9. Selection of unsuitable terrain.
10. Improper operation of flight controls.
b. This list remains relatively stable and points out
the need for continued refresher training to establish
a higher level of flight proficiency for all pilots. A
part of the FAA's continuing effort to promote
increased aviation safety is the Aviation Safety
Program. For information on Aviation Safety
Program activities contact your nearest Flight
Standards District Office.
c. Alertness. Be alert at all times, especially
when the weather is good. Most pilots pay attention
to business when they are operating in full IFR
weather conditions, but strangely, air collisions
almost invariably have occurred under ideal weather
conditions. Unlimited visibility appears to encourage
a sense of security which is not at all justified.
Considerable information of value may be obtained
by listening to advisories being issued in the terminal
area, even though controller workload may prevent a
pilot from obtaining individual service.
d. Giving Way. If you think another aircraft is too
close to you, give way instead of waiting for the other
pilot to respect the right-of-way to which you may be
entitled. It is a lot safer to pursue the right-of-way
angle after you have completed your flight.
7-5-2. VFR in Congested Areas
A high percentage of near midair collisions occur
below 8,000 feet AGL and within 30 miles of an
airport. When operating VFR in these highly
congested areas, whether you intend to land at an
airport within the area or are just flying through, it is
recommended that extra vigilance be maintained and
that you monitor an appropriate control frequency.
Normally the appropriate frequency is an approach
control frequency. By such monitoring action you can
"get the picture" of the traffic in your area. When the
approach controller has radar, radar traffic advisories
may be given to VFR pilots upon request.
AIM, Paragraph 4-1-15 , Radar Traffic Information Service
7-5-3. Obstructions To Flight
a. General. Many structures exist that could
significantly affect the safety of your flight when
operating below 500 feet AGL, and particularly
below 200 feet AGL. While 14 CFR Part 91.119
allows flight below 500 AGL when over sparsely
populated areas or open water, such operations are
very dangerous. At and below 200 feet AGL there are
numerous power lines, antenna towers, etc., that are
not marked and lighted as obstructions and; therefore,
may not be seen in time to avoid a collision. Notices
to Airmen (NOTAMs) are issued on those lighted
structures experiencing temporary light outages.
However, some time may pass before the FAA is
notified of these outages, and the NOTAM issued,
thus pilot vigilance is imperative.
b. Antenna Towers. Extreme caution should be
exercised when flying less than 2,000 feet AGL
because of numerous skeletal structures, such as radio
and television antenna towers, that exceed 1,000 feet
AGL with some extending higher than 2,000 feet
AGL. Most skeletal structures are supported by guy
wires which are very difficult to see in good weather
and can be invisible at dusk or during periods of
reduced visibility. These wires can extend about
1,500 feet horizontally from a structure; therefore, all
skeletal structures should be avoided horizontally by
Potential Flight Hazards 7-5-1