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AIM CHG 2
vertical visibility is "VV" followed by a three-digit
height in hundreds of feet.
As in METAR, ceiling layers are not designated in the TAF
code. For aviation purposes, the ceiling is the lowest
broken or overcast layer or vertical visibility into a
SKC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "sky clear"
SCT005 BKN025CB . "five hundred scattered,
ceiling two thousand
five hundred broken
VV008 . . . . . . . . . . . . "indefinite ceiling
(e) Optional Data (Wind Shear). Wind
shear is the forecast of nonconvective low level winds
(up to 2,000 feet). The forecast includes the letters
"WS" followed by the height of the wind shear, the
wind direction and wind speed at the indicated height
and the ending letters "KT" (knots). Height is given
in hundreds of feet (AGL) up to and including
2,000 feet. Wind shear is encoded with the
contraction "WS," followed by a three-digit height,
slant character "/," and winds at the height indicated
in the same format as surface winds. The wind shear
element is omitted if not expected to occur.
WS010/18040KT - "LOW LEVEL WIND SHEAR
AT ONE THOUSAND, WIND ONE EIGHT ZERO
AT FOUR ZERO"
d. Probability Forecast. The probability or
chance of thunderstorms or other precipitation events
occurring, along with associated weather conditions
(wind, visibility, and sky conditions). The PROB30
group is used when the occurrence of thunderstorms
or precipitation is 30-39% and the PROB40 group is
used when the occurrence of thunderstorms or
precipitation is 40-49%. This is followed by two
four-digit groups separated by a "/", giving the
beginning date and hour, and the ending date and hour
of the time period during which the thunderstorms or
precipitation are expected.
NWS does not use PROB 40 in the TAF. However U.S.
Military generated TAFS may include PROB40. PROB30
will not be shown during the first nine hours of a NWS
PROB40 2221/2302 1/2 SM +TSRA "chance between
2100Z and 0200Z of
statute mile in
PROB30 3010/3014 1SM RASN . "chance between
1000Z and 1400Z of
visibility one statute
mile in mixed rain
e. Forecast Change Indicators. The following
change indicators are used when either a rapid,
gradual, or temporary change is expected in some or
all of the forecast meteorological conditions. Each
change indicator marks a time group within the TAF
1. From (FM) group. The FM group is used
when a rapid change, usually occurring in less than
one hour, in prevailing conditions is expected.
Typically, a rapid change of prevailing conditions to
more or less a completely new set of prevailing
conditions is associated with a synoptic feature
passing through the terminal area (cold or warm
frontal passage). Appended to the "FM" indicator is
the six-digit date, hour, and minute the change is
expected to begin and continues until the next change
group or until the end of the current forecast. A "FM"
group will mark the beginning of a new line in a TAF
report (indented 5 spaces). Each "FM" group
contains all the required elements-wind, visibility,
weather, and sky condition. Weather will be omitted
in "FM" groups when it is not significant to aviation.
FM groups will not include the contraction NSW.
FM210100 14010KT P6SM SKC - "after 0100Z on the
21st, wind one four zero at one zero, visibility more than six,
2. Becoming (BECMG) group. The BECMG
group is used when a gradual change in conditions is
expected over a longer time period, usually two
hours. The time period when the change is expected
is two four-digit groups separated by a "/", with the
beginning date and hour, and ending date and hour of
the change period which follows the BECMG
indicator. The gradual change will occur at an
unspecified time within this time period. Only the
changing forecast meteorological conditions are
included in BECMG groups. The omitted conditions
are carried over from the previous time group.