Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), page 446

Index   445 -- Page 446 -- 447


users. FIG 7-1-1 provides conversion tables for the
most used weather elements that will be encountered
by pilots.

7-1-2. FAA Weather Services
a. The FAA provides the Flight Service program,
which serves the weather needs of pilots through its
flight service stations (FSS) (both government and
contract via 1-800-WX-BRIEF) and via the Internet,
through CSC Direct User Access Terminal System
(DUATS) and Lockheed Martin Flight Services

b. The FAA maintains an extensive surface
weather observing program. Airport observations
(METAR and SPECI) in the U.S. are provided by
automated observing systems. Various levels of
human oversight of the METAR and SPECI reports
and augmentation may be provided at select larger
airports by either government or contract personnel
qualified to report specified weather elements that
cannot be detected by the automated observing

c. Other Sources of Weather Information

1. Telephone Information Briefing Service

(TIBS) (FSS); and in Alaska, Transcribed Weather

Broadcast (TWEB) locations, and telephone access

to the TWEB (TEL-TWEB) provide continuously
updated recorded weather information for short or
local flights. Separate paragraphs in this section give
additional information regarding these services.

AIM, Paragraph 7-1-7 , Telephone Information Briefing Service
AIM, Paragraph 7-1-8 , Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB)
(Alaska Only)

2. Weather and aeronautical information are
also available from numerous private industry
sources on an individual or contract pay basis.
Information on how to obtain this service should be
available from local pilot organizations.

3. Pilots with a current medical certificate can
access the DUATS and Lockheed Martin Flight
Services via the Internet. Pilots can receive preflight
weather data and file domestic VFR and IFR flight
plans. The following are the FAA contract vendors:

Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC)
Internet Access: http://www.duats.com


For customer service: (800) 345-3828

Lockheed Martin Flight Services
Internet Access: http://www.1800wxbrief.com
For customer service: (866) 936-6826

7-1-3. Use of Aviation Weather Products

a. Air carriers and operators certificated under the
provisions of 14 CFR Part 119 are required to use the
aeronautical weather information systems defined in
the Operations Specifications issued to that certifi-
cate holder by the FAA. These systems may utilize
basic FAA/National Weather Service (NWS) weather
services, contractor- or operator-proprietary weath-
er services and/or Enhanced Weather Information
System (EWINS) when approved in the Operations
Specifications. As an integral part of this system
approval, the procedures for collecting, producing
and disseminating aeronautical weather information,
as well as the crew member and dispatcher training to
support the use of system weather products, must be
accepted or approved.

b. Operators not certificated under the provisions
of 14 CFR Part 119 are encouraged to use FAA/NWS
products through Flight Service Stations, Direct User

Access Terminal System (DUATS), Lockheed

Martin Flight Services, and/or Flight Information

Services-Broadcast (FIS-B).

c. The suite of available aviation weather product
types is expanding, with the development of new
sensor systems, algorithms and forecast models. The

FAA and NWS, supported by various weather
(TIBS) research laboratories and corporations under contract
to the Government, develop and implement new

aviation weather product types. The FAA's NextGen
Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP)
facilitates collaboration between the NWS, the FAA,
and various industry and research representatives.
This collaboration ensures that user needs and
technical readiness requirements are met before
experimental products mature to operational applica-

d. The AWRP manages the transfer of aviation
weather R&D to operational use through technical
review panels and conducting safety assessments to
ensure that newly developed aviation weather
products meet regulatory requirements and enhance

7-1-2 Meteorology

Page 446 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM.pdf)
AIM: Official Guide to Basic Flight Information and ATC Procedures

Index   445 -- Page 446 -- 447