Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), page 364

Index   363 -- Page 364 -- 365


pilots operating properly equipped and airworthy
aircraft in accordance with operating rules and
procedures acceptable to the FAA. Special IAPs are
also developed using TERPS but are not given public

notice in the FR. The FAA authorizes only certain

individual pilots and/or pilots in individual
organizations to use special IAPs, and may require
additional crew training and/or aircraft equipment or
performance, and may also require the use of landing
aids, communications, or weather services not
available for public use. Additionally, IAPs that
service private use airports or heliports are generally
special IAPs. FDC NOTAMs for Specials, FDC
T-NOTAMs, may also be used to promulgate
safety-of-flight information relating to Specials
provided the location has a valid landing area
identifier and is serviced by the United States
NOTAM system. Pilots may access NOTAMs online
or through an FAA Flight Service Station (FSS). FSS
specialists will not automatically provide NOTAM
information to pilots for special IAPs during
telephone pre-flight briefings. Pilots who are
authorized by the FAA to use special IAPs must
specifically request FDC NOTAM information for
the particular special IAP they plan to use.

5-4-9. Procedure Turn and Hold-in-lieu of
Procedure Turn
a. A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed
when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish
the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final
approach course. The procedure turn or
hold-in-lieu-of-PT is a required maneuver when it
is depicted on the approach chart, unless cleared by
ATC for a straight-in approach. Additionally, the
procedure turn or hold-in-lieu-of-PT is not
permitted when the symbol "No PT" is depicted on
the initial segment being used, when a RADAR
VECTOR to the final approach course is provided,
or when conducting a timed approach from a holding
fix. The altitude prescribed for the procedure turn is
a minimum altitude until the aircraft is established on
the inbound course. The maneuver must be
completed within the distance specified in the
profile view. For a hold-in-lieu-of-PT, the holding
pattern direction must be flown as depicted and the
specified leg length/timing must not be exceeded.


The pilot may elect to use the procedure turn or
hold-in-lieu-of-PT when it is not required by the
procedure, but must first receive an amended clearance
from ATC. If the pilot is uncertain whether the ATC

clearance intends for a procedure turn to be conducted or
to allow for a straight-in approach, the pilot must
immediately request clarification from ATC (14 CFR
Section 91.123).

1. On U.S. Government charts, a barbed arrow
indicates the maneuvering side of the outbound
course on which the procedure turn is made.
Headings are provided for course reversal using the
45 degree type procedure turn. However, the point at
which the turn may be commenced and the type and
rate of turn is left to the discretion of the pilot (limited
by the charted remain within xx NM distance). Some
of the options are the 45 degree procedure turn, the
racetrack pattern, the teardrop procedure turn, or the
80 degree  260 degree course reversal. Racetrack
entries should be conducted on the maneuvering side
where the majority of protected airspace resides. If an
entry places the pilot on the non-maneuvering side of
the PT, correction to intercept the outbound course
ensures remaining within protected airspace. Some
procedure turns are specified by procedural track.
These turns must be flown exactly as depicted.

2. Descent to the procedure turn (PT)
completion altitude from the PT fix altitude (when
one has been published or assigned by ATC) must not
begin until crossing over the PT fix or abeam and
proceeding outbound. Some procedures contain a
note in the chart profile view that says "Maintain
(altitude) or above until established outbound for
procedure turn" (See FIG 5-4-15). Newer
procedures will simply depict an "at or above"
altitude at the PT fix without a chart note (See
FIG 5-4-16). Both are there to ensure required
obstacle clearance is provided in the procedure turn
entry zone (See FIG 5-4-17). Absence of a chart note
or specified minimum altitude adjacent to the PT fix
is an indication that descent to the procedure turn
altitude can commence immediately upon crossing
over the PT fix, regardless of the direction of flight.
This is because the minimum altitudes in the PT entry
zone and the PT maneuvering zone are the same.

5-4-28 Arrival Procedures

Page 364 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM.pdf)
AIM: Official Guide to Basic Flight Information and ATC Procedures

Index   363 -- Page 364 -- 365