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pilots understand these procedures and their use prior
to attempting to fly instrument approaches.
7. TERPS criteria are provided for the following
types of instrument approach procedures:
(a) Precision Approach (PA). An instrument
approach based on a navigation system that provides
course and glidepath deviation information meeting
the precision standards of ICAO Annex 10. For
example, PAR, ILS, and GLS are precision
(b) Approach with Vertical Guidance (APV).
An instrument approach based on a navigation
system that is not required to meet the precision
approach standards of ICAO Annex 10 but provides
course and glidepath deviation information. For
example, Baro-VNAV, LDA with glidepath,
LNAV/VNAV and LPV are APV approaches.
(c) Nonprecision Approach (NPA). An in-
strument approach based on a navigation system
which provides course deviation information, but no
glidepath deviation information. For example, VOR,
NDB and LNAV. As noted in subparagraph k, Vertical
Descent Angle (VDA) on Nonprecision Approaches,
some approach procedures may provide a Vertical
Descent Angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
approach, without requiring its use in order to fly the
procedure. This does not make the approach an APV
procedure, since it must still be flown to an MDA and
has not been evaluated with a glidepath.
b. The method used to depict prescribed altitudes
on instrument approach charts differs according to
techniques employed by different chart publishers.
Prescribed altitudes may be depicted in four different
configurations: minimum, maximum, mandatory,
and recommended. The U.S. Government distributes
charts produced by National Geospatial-Intelligence
Agency (NGA) and FAA. Altitudes are depicted on
these charts in the profile view with underscore,
overscore, both or none to identify them as minimum,
maximum, mandatory or recommended.
1. Minimum altitude will be depicted with the
altitude value underscored. Aircraft are required to
maintain altitude at or above the depicted value,
2. Maximum altitude will be depicted with the
altitude value overscored. Aircraft are required to
maintain altitude at or below the depicted value,
3. Mandatory altitude will be depicted with the
altitude value both underscored and overscored.
Aircraft are required to maintain altitude at the
depicted value, e.g., 5000.
4. Recommended altitude will be depicted with
no overscore or underscore. These altitudes are
depicted for descent planning, e.g., 6000.
1. Pilots are cautioned to adhere to altitudes as prescribed
because, in certain instances, they may be used as the basis
for vertical separation of aircraft by ATC. When a depicted
altitude is specified in the ATC clearance, that altitude be-
comes mandatory as defined above.
2. The ILS glide slope is intended to be intercepted at the
published glide slope intercept altitude. This point marks
the PFAF and is depicted by the "lightning bolt" symbol
on U.S. Government charts. Intercepting the glide slope
at this altitude marks the beginning of the final
approach segment and ensures required obstacle
clearance during descent from the glide slope intercept
altitude to the lowest published decision altitude for
the approach. Interception and tracking of the glide slope
prior to the published glide slope interception altitude
does not necessarily ensure that minimum, maximum,
and/or mandatory altitudes published for any preceding
fixes will be complied with during the descent. If the pilot
chooses to track the glide slope prior to the glide slope
interception altitude, they remain responsible for
complying with published altitudes for any preceding
stepdown fixes encountered during the subsequent
3. Approaches used for simultaneous (parallel)
independent and simultaneous close parallel operations
procedurally require descending on the glideslope from the
altitude at which the approach clearance is issued (refer to
5-4-15 and 5-4-16). For simultaneous close parallel
(PRM) approaches, the Attention All Users Page (AAUP)
may publish a note which indicates that descending on the
glideslope/glidepath meets all crossing restrictions.
However, if no such note is published, and for simultaneous
independent approaches (4300 and greater runway
separation) where an AAUP is not published, pilots are
cautioned to monitor their descent on the glideslope/path
outside of the PFAF to ensure compliance with published
crossing restrictions during simultaneous operations.
4. When parallel approach courses are less than 2500 feet
apart and reduced in-trail spacing is authorized for
simultaneous dependent operations, a chart note will
indicate that simultaneous operations require use of
vertical guidance and that the pilot should maintain last
Arrival Procedures 5-4-7