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6. Pilot Action.
(a) Start speed reduction when 3 minutes or
less from the holding fix. Cross the holding fix,
initially, at or below the maximum holding airspeed.
(b) Make all turns during entry and while
(1) 3 degrees per second; or
(2) 30 degree bank angle; or
(3) 25 degree bank provided a flight
director system is used.
Use whichever requires the least bank angle.
(c) Compensate for wind effect primarily by
drift correction on the inbound and outbound legs.
When outbound, triple the inbound drift correction to
avoid major turning adjustments; e.g., if correcting
left by 8 degrees when inbound, correct right by
24 degrees when outbound.
(d) Determine entry turn from aircraft
heading upon arrival at the holding fix; +/-5 degrees
in heading is considered to be within allowable good
operating limits for determining entry.
(e) Advise ATC immediately what increased
airspeed is necessary, if any, due to turbulence, icing,
etc., or if unable to accomplish any part of the holding
procedures. When such higher speeds become no
longer necessary, operate according to the appro-
priate published holding speed and notify ATC.
7. Nonstandard Holding Pattern. Fix end
and outbound end turns are made to the left. Entry
procedures to a nonstandard pattern are oriented in
relation to the 70 degree line on the holding side just
as in the standard pattern.
k. When holding at a fix and instructions are
received specifying the time of departure from the fix,
the pilot should adjust the aircraft's flight path within
the limits of the established holding pattern in order
to leave the fix at the exact time specified. After
departing the holding fix, normal speed is to be
resumed with respect to other governing speed
requirements, such as terminal area speed limits,
specific ATC requests, etc. Where the fix is associated
with an instrument approach and timed approaches
are in effect, a procedure turn must not be executed
unless the pilot advises ATC, since aircraft holding
are expected to proceed inbound on final approach
directly from the holding pattern when approach
clearance is received.
l. Radar surveillance of outer fix holding pattern
1. Whenever aircraft are holding at an outer fix,
ATC will usually provide radar surveillance of the
outer fix holding pattern airspace area, or any portion
of it, if it is shown on the controller's radar scope.
2. The controller will attempt to detect any
holding aircraft that stray outside the holding pattern
airspace area and will assist any detected aircraft to
return to the assigned airspace area.
Many factors could prevent ATC from providing this
additional service, such as workload, number of targets,
precipitation, ground clutter, and radar system capability.
These circumstances may make it unfeasible to maintain
radar identification of aircraft to detect aircraft straying
from the holding pattern. The provision of this service
depends entirely upon whether controllers believe they are
in a position to provide it and does not relieve a pilot of their
responsibility to adhere to an accepted ATC clearance.
3. If an aircraft is established in a published
holding pattern at an assigned altitude above the
published minimum holding altitude and subsequent-
ly cleared for the approach, the pilot may descend to
the published minimum holding altitude. The holding
pattern would only be a segment of the IAP if it is
published on the instrument procedure chart and is
used in lieu of a procedure turn.
m. For those holding patterns where there are no
published minimum holding altitudes, the pilot, upon
receiving an approach clearance, must maintain the
last assigned altitude until leaving the holding pattern
and established on the inbound course. Thereafter, the
published minimum altitude of the route segment
being flown will apply. It is expected that the pilot
will be assigned a holding altitude that will permit a
normal descent on the inbound course.
5-3-14 En Route Procedures