-- Page 328 --
(b) With respect to position reporting,
reporting points are designated for jet route systems.
Flights using jet routes will report over these points
unless otherwise advised by ATC.
3. Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes.
(a) Published RNAV routes, including
Q-Routes and T-Routes, can be flight planned for
use by aircraft with RNAV capability, subject to any
limitations or requirements noted on en route charts,
in applicable Advisory Circulars, or by NOTAM.
RNAV routes are depicted in blue on aeronautical
charts and are identified by the letter "Q" or "T"
followed by the airway number (for example, Q-13,
T-205). Published RNAV routes are RNAV-2 except
when specifically charted as RNAV-1. These routes
require system performance currently met by GPS,
GPS/WAAS, or DME/DME/IRU RNAV systems that
satisfy the criteria discussed in AC 90-100A, U.S.
Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV)
AC 90-100A does not apply to over water RNAV routes
(reference 14 CFR 91.511, including the Q-routes in the
Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic routes) or Alaska
VOR/DME RNAV routes ("JxxxR"). The AC does not apply
to off-route RNAV operations, Alaska GPS routes or
(1) Q-routes are available for use by RNAV
equipped aircraft between 18,000 feet MSL and
FL 450 inclusive. Q-routes are depicted on Enroute
High Altitude Charts.
Aircraft in Alaska may only operate on GNSS Q-routes
with GPS (TSO-C129 (as revised) or TSO-C196 (as
revised)) equipment while the aircraft remains in Air
Traffic Control (ATC) radar surveillance or with
GPS/WAAS which does not require ATC radar surveil-
(2) T-routes are available for use by GPS or
GPS/WAAS equipped aircraft from 1,200 feet above
the surface (or in some instances higher) up to but not
including 18,000 feet MSL. T-routes are depicted on
Enroute Low Altitude Charts.
Aircraft in Alaska may only operate on GNSS T-routes
with GPS/WAAS (TSO-C145 (as revised) or TSO-C146 (as
(b) Unpublished RNAV routes are direct
routes, based on area navigation capability, between
waypoints defined in terms of latitude/longitude
coordinates, degree-distance fixes, or offsets from
established routes/airways at a specified distance and
direction. Radar monitoring by ATC is required on all
unpublished RNAV routes, except for GNSS-
equipped aircraft cleared via filed published
waypoints recallable from the aircraft's navigation
(c) Magnetic Reference Bearing (MRB) is the
published bearing between two waypoints on an
RNAV/GPS/GNSS route. The MRB is calculated by
applying magnetic variation at the waypoint to the
calculated true course between two waypoints. The
MRB enhances situational awareness by indicating a
reference bearing (no-wind heading) that a pilot
should see on the compass/HSI/RMI, etc., when
turning prior to/over a waypoint en route to another
waypoint. Pilots should use this bearing as a reference
only, because their RNAV/GPS/GNSS navigation
system will fly the true course between the
b. Operation above FL 450 may be conducted on
a point-to-point basis. Navigational guidance is
provided on an area basis utilizing those facilities
depicted on the enroute high altitude charts.
c. Radar Vectors. Controllers may vector air-
craft within controlled airspace for separation
purposes, noise abatement considerations, when an
operational advantage will be realized by the pilot or
the controller, or when requested by the pilot. Vectors
outside of controlled airspace will be provided only
on pilot request. Pilots will be advised as to what the
vector is to achieve when the vector is controller
initiated and will take the aircraft off a previously
assigned nonradar route. To the extent possible,
aircraft operating on RNAV routes will be allowed to
remain on their own navigation.
d. When flying in Canadian airspace, pilots are
cautioned to review Canadian Air Regulations.
1. Special attention should be given to the parts
which differ from U.S. CFRs.
(a) The Canadian Airways Class B airspace
restriction is an example. Class B airspace is all
controlled low level airspace above 12,500 feet MSL
or the MEA, whichever is higher, within which only
IFR and controlled VFR flights are permitted. (Low
5-3-6 En Route Procedures