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(d) Other malfunctions and considerations:
Loss of automatic altitude reporting capabilities
(encoder failure) will result in loss of ATC altitude
e. ADS-B Limitations.
1. The ADS-B cockpit display of traffic is NOT
intended to be used as a collision avoidance system
and does not relieve the pilot's responsibility to "see
and avoid" other aircraft. (See paragraph 5-5-8, See
and Avoid). ADS-B must not be used for avoidance
maneuvers during IMC or other times when there is
no visual contact with the intruder aircraft. ADS-B is
intended only to assist in visual acquisition of other
aircraft. No avoidance maneuvers are provided nor
authorized, as a direct result of an ADS-B target
being displayed in the cockpit.
2. Use of ADS-B radar services is limited to the
service volume of the GBT.
The coverage volume of GBTs are limited to line-of-sight.
f. Reports of ADS-B Malfunctions.
Users of ADS-B can provide valuable assistance in
the correction of malfunctions by reporting instances
of undesirable system performance. Since ADS-B
performance is monitored by maintenance personnel
rather than ATC, report malfunctions to the nearest
Flight Service Station (FSS) facility by radio or
telephone. Reporters should identify:
1. Condition observed.
2. Date and time of observation.
3. Altitude and location of observation.
4. Type and call sign of the aircraft.
5. Type and software version of avionics
4-5-8. Traffic Information Service-
TIS-B is the broadcast of ATC derived traffic
information to ADS-B equipped (1090ES or UAT)
aircraft from ground radio stations. The source of this
traffic information is derived from ground-based air
traffic surveillance sensors. TIS-B service will be
available throughout the NAS where there are both
adequate surveillance coverage from ground sensors
and adequate broadcast coverage from ADS-B
ground radio stations. The quality level of traffic
information provided by TIS-B is dependent upon
the number and type of ground sensors available as
TIS-B sources and the timeliness of the reported
data. (See FIG 4-5-8 and FIG 4-5-9.)
b. TIS-B Requirements.
In order to receive TIS-B service, the following
conditions must exist:
1. Aircraft must be equipped with an ADS-B
transmitter/receiver or transceiver, and a cockpit
display of traffic information (CDTI).
2. Aircraft must fly within the coverage volume
of a compatible ground radio station that is
configured for TIS-B uplinks. (Not all ground radio
stations provide TIS-B due to a lack of radar
coverage or because a radar feed is not available).
3. Aircraft must be within the coverage of and
detected by at least one ATC radar serving the ground
radio station in use.
c. TIS-B Capabilities.
1. TIS-B is intended to provide ADS-B
equipped aircraft with a more complete traffic picture
in situations where not all nearby aircraft are
equipped with ADS-B Out. This advisory-only
application is intended to enhance a pilot's visual
acquisition of other traffic.
2. Only transponder-equipped targets
(i.e., Mode A/C or Mode S transponders) are
transmitted through the ATC ground system
architecture. Current radar siting may result in
limited radar surveillance coverage at lower
altitudes near some airports, with subsequently
limited TIS-B service volume coverage. If there is
no radar coverage in a given area, then there will be
no TIS-B coverage in that area.
d. TIS-B Limitations.
1. TIS-B is NOT intended to be used as a
collision avoidance system and does not relieve the
pilot's responsibility to "see and avoid" other aircraft,
in accordance with 14CFR §91.113b. TIS-B must
not be used for avoidance maneuvers during times
when there is no visual contact with the intruder
aircraft. TIS-B is intended only to assist in the visual
acquisition of other aircraft.
No aircraft avoidance maneuvers are authorized as a
4-5-18 Surveillance Systems