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AIM CHG 2
ground, hold short of runway one eight right."
Aircraft: "Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, hold short
of runway one eight right."
4-3-19. Taxi During Low Visibility
a. Pilots and aircraft operators should be constant-
ly aware that during certain low visibility conditions
the movement of aircraft and vehicles on airports may
not be visible to the tower controller. This may
prevent visual confirmation of an aircraft's adherence
to taxi instructions.
b. Of vital importance is the need for pilots to
notify the controller when difficulties are encoun-
tered or at the first indication of becoming
disoriented. Pilots should proceed with extreme
caution when taxiing toward the sun. When vision
difficulties are encountered pilots should immediate-
ly inform the controller.
c. Advisory Circular 120-57, Low Visibility
Operations Surface Movement Guidance and Control
System, commonly known as LVOSMGCS (pro-
nounced "LVO SMIGS") describes an adequate
example of a low visibility taxi plan for any airport
which has takeoff or landing operations in less than
1,200 feet runway visual range (RVR) visibility
conditions. These plans, which affect aircrew and
vehicle operators, may incorporate additional
lighting, markings, and procedures to control airport
surface traffic. They will be addressed at two levels;
operations less than 1,200 feet RVR to 500 feet RVR
and operations less than 500 feet RVR.
Specific lighting systems and surface markings may be
found in Paragraph 2-1-11, Taxiway Lights, and
Paragraph 2-3-4 , Taxiway Markings.
d. When low visibility conditions exist, pilots
should focus their entire attention on the safe
operation of the aircraft while it is moving. Checklists
and nonessential communication should be withheld
until the aircraft is stopped and the brakes set.
4-3-20. Exiting the Runway After Landing
The following procedures must be followed after
landing and reaching taxi speed.
a. Exit the runway without delay at the first
available taxiway or on a taxiway as instructed by
ATC. Pilots must not exit the landing runway onto
another runway unless authorized by ATC. At
airports with an operating control tower, pilots should
not stop or reverse course on the runway without first
obtaining ATC approval.
b. Taxi clear of the runway unless otherwise
directed by ATC. An aircraft is considered clear of the
runway when all parts of the aircraft are past the
runway edge and there are no restrictions to its
continued movement beyond the runway holding
position markings. In the absence of ATC instruc-
tions, the pilot is expected to taxi clear of the landing
runway by taxiing beyond the runway holding
position markings associated with the landing
runway, even if that requires the aircraft to protrude
into or cross another taxiway or ramp area. Once all
parts of the aircraft have crossed the runway holding
position markings, the pilot must hold unless further
instructions have been issued by ATC.
1. The tower will issue the pilot instructions which will
permit the aircraft to enter another taxiway, runway, or
ramp area when required.
2. Guidance contained in subparagraphs a and b above is
considered an integral part of the landing clearance and
satisfies the requirement of 14 CFR Section 91.129.
c. Immediately change to ground control frequen-
cy when advised by the tower and obtain a taxi
1. The tower will issue instructions required to resolve any
potential conflictions with other ground traffic prior to
advising the pilot to contact ground control.
2. Ground control will issue taxi clearance to parking.
That clearance does not authorize the aircraft to "enter"
or "cross" any runways. Pilots not familiar with the taxi
route should request specific taxi instructions from ATC.
4-3-21. Practice Instrument Approaches
a. Various air traffic incidents have indicated the
necessity for adoption of measures to achieve more
organized and controlled operations where practice
instrument approaches are conducted. Practice
instrument approaches are considered to be instru-
ment approaches made by either a VFR aircraft not on
an IFR flight plan or an aircraft on an IFR flight plan.
To achieve this and thereby enhance air safety, it is
Air Traffic's policy to provide for separation of such
operations at locations where approach control
facilities are located and, as resources permit, at
certain other locations served by ARTCCs or parent
4-3-22 Airport Operations