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7. Controllers need a full read back of all
LAHSO clearances. Pilots should read back their
LAHSO clearance and include the words, "HOLD
SHORT OF (RUNWAY/TAXIWAY/OR POINT)" in
their acknowledgment of all LAHSO clearances. In
order to reduce frequency congestion, pilots are
encouraged to read back the LAHSO clearance
without prompting. Don't make the controller have to
ask for a read back!
c. LAHSO Situational Awareness
1. Situational awareness is vital to the success
of LAHSO. Situational awareness starts with having
current airport information in the cockpit, readily
accessible to the pilot. (An airport diagram assists
pilots in identifying their location on the airport, thus
reducing requests for "progressive taxi instructions"
2. Situational awareness includes effective
pilot-controller radio communication. ATC expects
pilots to specifically acknowledge and read back all
LAHSO clearances as follows:
ATC: "(Aircraft ID) cleared to land runway six right, hold
short of taxiway bravo for crossing traffic (type aircraft)."
Aircraft: "(Aircraft ID), wilco, cleared to land runway six
right to hold short of taxiway bravo."
ATC: "(Aircraft ID) cross runway six right at taxiway
bravo, landing aircraft will hold short."
Aircraft: "(Aircraft ID), wilco, cross runway six right at
bravo, landing traffic (type aircraft) to hold."
3. For those airplanes flown with two
crewmembers, effective intra-cockpit communica-
tion between cockpit crewmembers is also critical.
There have been several instances where the pilot
working the radios accepted a LAHSO clearance but
then simply forgot to tell the pilot flying the aircraft.
4. Situational awareness also includes a thor-
ough understanding of the airport markings, signage,
and lighting associated with LAHSO. These visual
aids consist of a three-part system of yellow
hold-short markings, red and white signage and,
in certain cases, in-pavement lighting. Visual aids
assist the pilot in determining where to hold short.
FIG 4-3-7, FIG 4-3-8, FIG 4-3-9 depict how these
markings, signage, and lighting combinations will
appear once installed. Pilots are cautioned that not all
airports conducting LAHSO have installed any or all
of the above markings, signage, or lighting.
5. Pilots should only receive a LAHSO
clearance when there is a minimum ceiling of
1,000 feet and 3 statute miles visibility. The intent of
having "basic" VFR weather conditions is to allow
pilots to maintain visual contact with other aircraft
and ground vehicle operations. Pilots should consider
the effects of prevailing inflight visibility (such as
landing into the sun) and how it may affect overall
situational awareness. Additionally, surface vehicles
and aircraft being taxied by maintenance personnel
may also be participating in LAHSO, especially in
those operations that involve crossing an active
4-3-12. Low Approach
a. A low approach (sometimes referred to as a low
pass) is the go-around maneuver following an
approach. Instead of landing or making a touch-and-
go, a pilot may wish to go around (low approach) in
order to expedite a particular operation (a series of
practice instrument approaches is an example of such
an operation). Unless otherwise authorized by ATC,
the low approach should be made straight ahead, with
no turns or climb made until the pilot has made a
thorough visual check for other aircraft in the area.
b. When operating within a Class B, Class C, and
Class D surface area, a pilot intending to make a low
approach should contact the tower for approval. This
request should be made prior to starting the final
c. When operating to an airport, not within a
Class B, Class C, and Class D surface area, a pilot
intending to make a low approach should, prior to
leaving the final approach fix inbound (nonprecision
approach) or the outer marker or fix used in lieu of the
outer marker inbound (precision approach), so advise
the FSS, UNICOM, or make a broadcast as
4-3-16 Airport Operations