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AIM

10/12/17

5−5−7

Pilot/Controller Roles and Responsibilities

5−5−14. Instrument Departures

a. Pilot.

1. Prior to departure considers the type of terrain

and other obstructions on or in the vicinity of the

departure airport.

2. Determines if obstruction avoidance can be

maintained visually or that the departure procedure

should be followed.

3. Determines whether an obstacle departure

procedure (ODP) and/or DP is available for

obstruction avoidance. One option may be a Visual

Climb Over Airport (VCOA). Pilots must advise

ATC as early as possible of the intent to fly the VCOA

prior to departure.

4. At airports where IAPs have not been

published, hence no published departure procedure,

determines what action will be necessary and takes

such action that will assure a safe departure.

b. Controller.

1. At locations with airport traffic control

service, when necessary, specifies direction of

takeoff, turn, or initial heading to be flown after

takeoff, consistent with published departure proce-

dures (DP) or diverse vector areas (DVA), where

applicable. 

2. At locations without airport traffic control

service but within Class E surface area when

necessary to specify direction of takeoff, turn, or

initial heading to be flown, obtains pilot’s concur-

rence that the procedure will allow the pilot to comply

with local traffic patterns, terrain, and obstruction

avoidance.

3. When the initial heading will take the aircraft

off an assigned procedure (for example, an RNAV

SID with a published lateral path to a waypoint and

crossing restrictions from the departure end of

runway), the controller will assign an altitude to

maintain with the initial heading.

4. Includes established departure procedures as

part of the ATC clearance when pilot compliance is

necessary to ensure separation.

5−5−15. Minimum Fuel Advisory

a. Pilot.

1. Advise ATC of your minimum fuel status

when your fuel supply has reached a state where,

upon reaching destination, you cannot accept any

undue delay.

2. Be aware this is not an emergency situation,

but merely an advisory that indicates an emergency

situation is possible should any undue delay occur.

3. On initial contact the term “minimum fuel”

should be used after stating call sign.

EXAMPLE−

Salt Lake Approach, United 621, “minimum fuel.”

4. Be aware a minimum fuel advisory does not

imply a need for traffic priority.

5. If the remaining usable fuel supply suggests

the need for traffic priority to ensure a safe landing,

you should declare an emergency due to low fuel and

report fuel remaining in minutes.

REFERENCE−

Pilot/Controller Glossary Term− Fuel Remaining.

b. Controller.

1. When an aircraft declares a state of minimum

fuel, relay this information to the facility to whom

control jurisdiction is transferred.

2. Be alert for any occurrence which might

delay the aircraft.

5−5−16. RNAV and RNP Operations

a. Pilot.

1. If unable to comply with the requirements of

an RNAV or RNP procedure, pilots must advise air

traffic control as soon as possible. For example,

“N1234, failure of GPS system, unable RNAV,

request amended clearance.”

2. Pilots are not authorized to fly a published

RNAV or RNP procedure (instrument approach,

departure, or arrival procedure) unless it is retrievable

by the procedure name from the current aircraft

navigation database and conforms to the charted

procedure. The system must be able to retrieve the

procedure by name from the aircraft navigation

database, not just as a manually entered series of

waypoints.

3. Whenever possible, RNAV routes (Q− or

T−route)  should be extracted from the database in