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AIM

10/12/17

5−3−13

En Route Procedures

NOTE−

The exchange of information between an aircraft and an

ARTCC through an FSS is quicker than relay via company

radio because the FSS has direct interphone lines to the

responsible ARTCC sector. Accordingly, when circum-

stances dictate a choice between the two, during an

ARTCC frequency outage, relay via FSS radio is

recommended.

d. Oakland Oceanic FIR. The use of CPDLC and

ADS−C in the Oakland Oceanic FIR (KZAK) is only

permitted by Inmarsat, Iridium, and MTSAT

customers. All other forms of data link connectivity

are not authorized. Users must ensure that the proper

data link code is filed in Item 10a of the ICAO FPL

in order to indicate which satellite medium(s) the

aircraft is equipped with. The identifier for Inmarsat

is J5, the identifier for MTSAT is J6, and the identifier

for Iridium is J7. If J5, J6, or J7 is not included in the

ICAO FPL, then the LOGON will be rejected by

KZAK and the aircraft will not be able to connect.

e. New York Oceanic FIR. The use of CPDLC

and ADS−C in the New York Oceanic FIR (KZWY)

is only permitted by Inmarsat and Iridium customers.

All other forms of data link connectivity are not

authorized. Users must ensure that the proper data

link code is filed in Item 10a of the ICAO FPL in order

to indicate which satellite medium(s) the aircraft is

equipped with. The identifier for Inmarsat is J5 and

the identifier for Iridium is J7. If J5 or J7 is not

included in the ICAO FPL, then the LOGON will be

rejected by KZWY and the aircraft will not be able to

connect.

5−3−2. Position Reporting

The safety and effectiveness of traffic control

depends to a large extent on accurate position

reporting. In order to provide the proper separation

and expedite aircraft movements, ATC must be able

to make accurate estimates of the progress of every

aircraft operating on an IFR flight plan.

a. Position Identification.

1. When a position report is to be made passing

a VOR radio facility, the time reported should be the

time at which the first complete reversal of the

“to/from” indicator is accomplished.

2. When a position report is made passing a

facility by means of an airborne ADF, the time

reported should be the time at which the indicator

makes a complete reversal.

3. When an aural or a light panel indication is

used to determine the time passing a reporting point,

such as a fan marker, Z marker, cone of silence or

intersection of range courses, the time should be

noted when the signal is first received and again when

it ceases. The mean of these two times should then be

taken as the actual time over the fix.

4. If a position is given with respect to distance

and direction from a reporting point, the distance and

direction should be computed as accurately as

possible.

5. Except for terminal area transition purposes,

position reports or navigation with reference to aids

not established for use in the structure in which flight

is being conducted will not normally be required by

ATC.

b. Position Reporting Points. CFRs require

pilots to maintain a listening watch on the appropriate

frequency and, unless operating under the provisions

of subparagraph c, to furnish position reports passing

certain reporting points. Reporting points are

indicated by symbols on en route charts. The

designated compulsory reporting point symbol is a
solid triangle  

  and the “on request” reporting

point symbol is the open triangle  

. Reports

passing an “on request” reporting point are only

necessary when requested by ATC.

c. Position Reporting Requirements.

1. Flights Along Airways or Routes. A

position report is required by all flights regardless of

altitude, including those operating in accordance with

an ATC clearance specifying “VFR−on−top,” over

each designated compulsory reporting point along the

route being flown.

2. Flights Along a Direct Route. Regardless

of the altitude or flight level being flown, including

flights operating in accordance with an ATC

clearance specifying “VFR−on−top,” pilots must

report over each reporting point used in the flight plan

to define the route of flight.

3. Flights in a Radar Environment. When

informed by ATC that their aircraft are in “Radar

Contact,” pilots should discontinue position reports

over designated reporting points. They should

resume normal position reporting when ATC advises

9/13/18

AIM