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AIM

10/12/17

5−2−8

Departure Procedures

FIG 5−2−1

Diverse Departure Obstacle Assessment to 25/46 NM

EXAMPLE−

TAKEOFF OBSTACLE NOTES: Rwy 14, trees 2011’

from DER, 29’ left of centerline, 100’ AGL/3829’

MSL. Rwy 32, trees 1009’ from DER, 697’ left of

centerline, 100’ AGL/3839’ MSL. Tower 4448’ from

DER, 1036’ left of centerline, 165’ AGL/3886’ MSL.

5. Climb gradients greater than 200 FPNM are

specified when required to support procedure design

constraints, obstacle clearance, and/or airspace

restrictions. Compliance with a climb gradient for

these purposes is mandatory when the procedure is

part of the ATC clearance, unless increased takeoff

minimums are provided and weather conditions

allow compliance with these minimums.

NOTE−

Climb gradients for ATC purposes are being phased out on

SIDs.
EXAMPLE−

“Cross ALPHA intersection at or below 4000; maintain

6000.” The pilot climbs at least 200 FPNM to 6000. If 4000

is reached before ALPHA, the pilot levels off at 4000 until

passing ALPHA; then immediately resumes at least 200

FPNM climb.
EXAMPLE−

“TAKEOFF MINIMUMS:  RWY 27, Standard with a

minimum climb of 280’ per NM to 2500.” A climb of at least

280 FPNM is required to 2500 and is mandatory when the

departure procedure is included in the ATC clearance.
NOTE−

Some SIDs still retain labeled “ATC” climb gradients

published or have climb gradients that are established to

meet a published  altitude restriction that is not required for

obstacle clearance or  procedure design criteria. These

procedures will be revised in the course of the normal

procedure amendment process.

6. Climb gradients may be specified only to an

altitude/fix, above which the normal gradient applies.
An ATC−required altitude restriction published at a

fix, will not have an associated climb gradient pub-

lished with that restriction. Pilots are expected to

determine if crossing altitudes can be met, based on

the performance capability of the aircraft they are op-

erating.

EXAMPLE−

“Minimum climb 340 FPNM to ALPHA.” The pilot climbs

at least 340 FPNM to ALPHA, then at least 200 FPNM to

MIA.

7. A Visual Climb Over Airport (VCOA)

procedure is a departure option for an IFR aircraft,

operating in visual meteorological conditions equal

to or greater than the specified visibility and ceiling,

to visually conduct climbing turns over the airport to

the published “climb−to” altitude from which to

proceed with the instrument portion of the departure.

VCOA procedures are developed to avoid obstacles

greater than 3 statute miles from the departure end of

the runway as an alternative to complying with climb

gradients greater than 200 feet per nautical mile.

Pilots are responsible to advise ATC as early as

possible of the intent to fly the VCOA option prior to

departure. These textual procedures are published in

the Take-Off Minimums and (Obstacle) Departure

3/15/07

7110.65R CHG 2

AIM

9/13/18