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AIM

10/12/17

4−3−27

Airport Operations

examinee under changing conditions, the pilot would

not have to discontinue an approach in the middle of

the procedure due to student error or pilot proficiency

requirements, and finally it allows more flexibility

and economy in training programs. This procedure

will only be used at those locations with an

operational control tower and will be subject to ATC

approval.

4−3−23. Use of Aircraft Lights

a. Aircraft position lights are required to be lighted

on aircraft operated on the surface and in flight from

sunset to sunrise. In addition, aircraft equipped with

an anti−collision light system are required to operate

that light system during all types of operations (day

and night). However, during any adverse meteorolog-

ical conditions, the pilot−in−command may

determine that the anti−collision lights should be

turned off when their light output would constitute a

hazard to safety (14 CFR Section 91.209).

Supplementary strobe lights should be turned off on

the ground when they adversely affect ground

personnel or other pilots, and in flight when there are

adverse reflection from clouds.

b. An aircraft anti−collision light system can use

one or more rotating beacons and/or strobe lights, be

colored either red or white, and have different (higher

than minimum) intensities when compared to other

aircraft. Many aircraft have both a rotating beacon

and a strobe light system.

c. The FAA has a voluntary pilot safety program,

Operation Lights On, to enhance the see−and−avoid

concept. Pilots are encouraged to turn on their landing

lights during takeoff; i.e., either after takeoff

clearance has been received or when beginning

takeoff roll. Pilots are further encouraged to turn on

their landing lights when operating below

10,000 feet, day or night, especially when operating

within 10 miles of any airport, or in conditions of

reduced visibility and in areas where flocks of birds

may be expected, i.e., coastal areas, lake areas,

around refuse dumps, etc. Although turning on

aircraft lights does enhance the see−and−avoid

concept, pilots should not become complacent about

keeping a sharp lookout for other aircraft. Not all

aircraft are equipped with lights and some pilots may

not have their lights turned on. Aircraft manufactur-

er’s recommendations for operation of landing lights

and electrical systems should be observed.

d. Prop and jet blast forces generated by large

aircraft have overturned or damaged several smaller

aircraft taxiing behind them. To avoid similar results,

and in the interest of preventing upsets and injuries to

ground personnel from such forces, the FAA

recommends that air carriers and commercial

operators turn on their rotating beacons anytime their

aircraft engines are in operation. General aviation

pilots using rotating beacon equipped aircraft are also

encouraged to participate in this program which is

designed to alert others to the potential hazard. Since

this is a voluntary program, exercise caution and do

not rely solely on the rotating beacon as an indication

that aircraft engines are in operation.

e. Prior to commencing taxi, it is recommended to

turn on navigation, position, anti-collision, and logo

lights (if equipped). To signal intent to other pilots,

consider turning on the taxi light when the aircraft is

moving or intending to move on the ground, and

turning it off when stopped or yielding to other

ground traffic. Strobe lights should not be illuminated

during taxi if they will adversely affect the vision of

other pilots or ground personnel.

f. At the discretion of the pilot-in-command, all

exterior lights should be illuminated when taxiing on

or across any runway. This increases the conspicu-

ousness of the aircraft to controllers and other pilots

approaching to land, taxiing, or crossing the runway.

Pilots should comply with any equipment operating

limitations and consider the effects of landing and

strobe lights on other aircraft in their vicinity.

g. When entering the departure runway for takeoff

or to “line up and wait,” all lights, except for landing

lights, should be illuminated to make the aircraft

conspicuous to ATC and other aircraft on approach.

Landing lights should be turned on when takeoff

clearance is received or when commencing takeoff

roll at an airport without an operating control tower.

4−3−24. Flight Inspection/‘Flight Check’

Aircraft in Terminal Areas

a. Flight check is a call sign used to alert pilots and

air traffic controllers when a FAA aircraft is engaged

in flight inspection/certification of NAVAIDs and

flight procedures. Flight check aircraft fly preplanned

high/low altitude flight patterns such as grids, orbits,

3/29/18

AIM