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AIM

10/12/17

4−3−24

Airport Operations

c. At those airports where the U.S. Government

operates the control tower and ATC has authorized

noncompliance with the requirement for two−way

radio communications while operating within the

Class B, Class C, or Class D surface area, or at those

airports where the U.S. Government does not operate

the control tower and radio communications cannot

be established, pilots must obtain a clearance by

visual light signal prior to taxiing on a runway and

prior to takeoff and landing.

d. The following phraseologies and procedures

are used in radiotelephone communications with

aeronautical ground stations.

1. Request for taxi instructions prior to

departure. State your aircraft identification, loca-

tion, type of operation planned (VFR or IFR), and the

point of first intended landing.

EXAMPLE−

Aircraft: “Washington ground, Beechcraft One Three One

Five Niner at hangar eight, ready to taxi, I−F−R to

Chicago.”

 

Tower: “Beechcraft one three one five niner, Washington

ground, runway two seven, taxi via taxiways Charlie and

Delta, hold short of runway three three left.”

Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, hold

short of runway three three left.”

2. Receipt of ATC clearance. ARTCC clear-

ances are relayed to pilots by airport traffic

controllers in the following manner.

EXAMPLE−

Tower: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, cleared to

the Chicago Midway Airport via Victor Eight, maintain

eight thousand.”

Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Three One Five Niner, cleared

to the Chicago Midway Airport via Victor Eight, maintain

eight thousand.”
NOTE−

Normally, an ATC IFR clearance is relayed to a pilot by the

ground controller. At busy locations, however, pilots may

be instructed by the ground controller to “contact

clearance delivery” on a frequency designated for this

purpose. No surveillance or control over the movement of

traffic is exercised by this position of operation.

3. Request for taxi instructions after landing.

State your aircraft identification, location, and that

you request taxi instructions.

EXAMPLE−

Aircraft: “Dulles ground, Beechcraft One Four Two Six

One clearing runway one right on taxiway echo three,

request clearance to Page.”

Tower: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, Dulles

ground, taxi to Page via taxiways echo three, echo one, and

echo niner.”

or

Aircraft: “Orlando ground, Beechcraft One Four Two Six

One clearing runway one eight left at taxiway bravo three,

request clearance to Page.”

Tower: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, Orlando

ground, hold short of runway one eight right.”

Aircraft: “Beechcraft One Four Two Six One, hold short

of runway one eight right.”

4−3−19. Taxi During Low Visibility

a. Pilots and aircraft operators should be constant-

ly aware that during certain low visibility conditions

the movement of aircraft and vehicles on airports may

not be visible to the tower controller. This may

prevent visual confirmation of an aircraft’s adherence

to taxi instructions.

b. Of vital importance is the need for pilots to

notify the controller when difficulties are encoun-

tered or at the first indication of becoming

disoriented. Pilots should proceed with extreme

caution when taxiing toward the sun. When vision

difficulties are encountered pilots should immediate-

ly inform the controller.

c. Advisory Circular 120−57, Low Visibility

Operations Surface Movement Guidance and Control

System, commonly known as LVOSMGCS (pro-

nounced “LVO SMIGS”) describes an adequate

example of a low visibility taxi plan for any airport

which has takeoff or landing operations in less than

1,200 feet runway visual range (RVR) visibility

conditions. These plans, which affect aircrew and

vehicle operators, may incorporate additional

lighting, markings, and procedures to control airport

surface traffic. They will be addressed at two levels;

operations less than 1,200 feet RVR to 500 feet RVR

and operations less than 500 feet RVR.

NOTE−

Specific lighting systems and surface markings may be

found in Paragraph 2−1−11, Taxiway Lights, and

Paragraph 2−3−4 , Taxiway Markings.

3/15/07

7110.65R CHG 2

AIM

3/29/18