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Airport Operations

situational awareness. Additionally, surface vehicles

and aircraft being taxied by maintenance personnel

may also be participating in LAHSO, especially in

those operations that involve crossing an active


4−3−12. Low Approach

a. A low approach (sometimes referred to as a low

pass) is the go−around maneuver following an

approach. Instead of landing or making a touch−and−

go, a pilot may wish to go around (low approach) in

order to expedite a particular operation (a series of

practice instrument approaches is an example of such

an operation). Unless otherwise authorized by ATC,

the low approach should be made straight ahead, with

no turns or climb made until the pilot has made a

thorough visual check for other aircraft in the area.

b. When operating within a Class B, Class C, and

Class D surface area, a pilot intending to make a low

approach should contact the tower for approval. This

request should be made prior to starting the final


c. When operating to an airport, not within a

Class B, Class C, and Class D surface area, a pilot

intending to make a low approach should, prior to

leaving the final approach fix inbound (nonprecision

approach) or the outer marker or fix used in lieu of the

outer marker inbound (precision approach), so advise

the FSS, UNICOM, or make a broadcast as



AIM, Paragraph 4−1−9 , Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without

Operating Control Towers

4−3−13. Traffic Control Light Signals

a. The following procedures are used by ATCTs in

the control of aircraft, ground vehicles, equipment,

and personnel not equipped with radio. These same

procedures will be used to control aircraft, ground

vehicles, equipment, and personnel equipped with

radio if radio contact cannot be established. ATC

personnel use a directive traffic control signal which

emits an intense narrow light beam of a selected color

(either red, white, or green) when controlling traffic

by light signals.

b. Although the traffic signal light offers the

advantage that some control may be exercised over

nonradio equipped aircraft, pilots should be cog-

nizant of the disadvantages which are:

1. Pilots may not be looking at the control tower

at the time a signal is directed toward their aircraft.

2. The directions transmitted by a light signal

are very limited since only approval or disapproval of

a pilot’s anticipated actions may be transmitted. No

supplement or explanatory information may be

transmitted except by the use of the “General

Warning Signal” which advises the pilot to be on the


c. Between sunset and sunrise, a pilot wishing to

attract the attention of the control tower should turn

on a landing light and taxi the aircraft into a position,

clear of the active runway, so that light is visible to the

tower. The landing light should remain on until

appropriate signals are received from the tower.

d. Airport Traffic Control Tower Light Gun

Signals. (See TBL 4−3−1.)

e. During daylight hours, acknowledge tower

transmissions or light signals by moving the ailerons

or rudder. At night, acknowledge by blinking the

landing or navigation lights. If radio malfunction

occurs after departing the parking area, watch the

tower for light signals or monitor tower frequency.