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AIM

10/12/17

4−1−15

Services Available to Pilots

remarks section of the flight plan when requesting

tower en route control.

d. All approach controls in the system may not

operate up to the maximum TEC altitude of

10,000 feet. IFR flight may be planned to any

satellite airport in proximity to the major primary

airport via the same routing.

4−1−20. Transponder Operation

a. General

1. Pilots should be aware that proper application

of transponder operating procedures will provide

both VFR and IFR aircraft with a higher degree of

safety while operating on the ground and airborne.

Transponders with altitude reporting mode turned

ON (Mode C or S) substantially increase the

capability of surveillance systems to see an aircraft,

thus providing the Air Traffic Controller increased

situational awareness and the ability to identify

potential traffic conflicts. Even VFR pilots who are

not in contact with ATC will be afforded greater

protection from IFR aircraft and VFR aircraft which

are receiving traffic advisories. Nevertheless, pilots

should never relax their visual scanning for other

aircraft.

2. Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System

(ATCRBS) is similar to and compatible with military

coded radar beacon equipment. Civil Mode A is

identical to military Mode 3.

3. Transponder and ADS-B operations on the

ground. Civil and military aircraft should operate

with the transponder in the altitude reporting mode

(consult the aircraft’s flight manual to determine the

specific transponder position to enable altitude

reporting) and ADS-B Out transmissions enabled (if

equipped) at all airports, any time the aircraft is

positioned on any portion of an airport movement

area. This includes all defined taxiways and runways.

Pilots must pay particular attention to ATIS and

airport diagram notations, General Notes (included

on airport charts), and comply with directions

pertaining to transponder and ADS-B usage.

Generally, these directions are:

(a) Departures. Select the transponder mode

which allows altitude reporting and enable ADS-B (if

equipped) during pushback or taxi-out from parking

spot. Select TA or TA/RA (if equipped with TCAS)

when taking the active runway.

(b) Arrivals. Maintain transponder to the

altitude reporting mode or if TCAS-equipped (TA or

TA/RA), select the transponder to altitude reporting

mode. Maintain ADS-B Out transmissions (if

equipped) after clearing the active runway. Select

STBY or OFF for transponder and ADS-B (if

equipped) upon arriving at the aircraft’s parking spot

or gate.

4. Transponder and ADS-B Operations in

the Air. EACH PILOT OPERATING AN AIR-

CRAFT EQUIPPED WITH AN OPERABLE ATC

TRANSPONDER, MAINTAINED IN ACCOR-

DANCE WITH 14 CFR SECTION 91.413 OR

ADS-B TRANSMITTER, MUST OPERATE THE

TRANSPONDER/TRANSMITTER, INCLUDING

MODE C/S IF INSTALLED, ON THE APPROPRI-

ATE MODE 3/A CODE OR AS ASSIGNED BY

ATC. EACH PERSON OPERATING AN AIR-

CRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ADS-B OUT MUST

OPERATE THIS EQUIPMENT IN THE TRANS-

MIT MODE AT ALL TIMES WHILE AIRBORNE

UNLESS OTHERWISE REQUESTED BY ATC.

5. A pilot on an IFR flight who elects to cancel

the IFR flight plan prior to reaching destination,

should adjust the transponder according to VFR

operations.

6. If entering a U.S. OFFSHORE AIRSPACE

AREA from outside the U.S., the pilot should advise

on first radio contact with a U.S. radar ATC facility

that such equipment is available by adding

“transponder” to the aircraft identification.

7. It should be noted by all users of ATC

transponders and ADS−B Out systems that the

surveillance coverage they can expect is limited to

“line of sight” with ground radar and ADS−B radio

sites. Low altitude or aircraft antenna shielding by the

aircraft itself may result in reduced range or loss of

aircraft contact. Surveillance coverage can be

improved by climbing to a higher altitude.

NOTE−

Pilots of aircraft equipped with ADS−B should refer to

AIM, Automatic Dependent Surveillance − Broadcast

Services, Paragraph 4−5−7 , for a complete description of

operating limitations and procedures.

b. Transponder Code Designation

1. For ATC to utilize one or a combination of the

4096 discrete codes FOUR DIGIT CODE DESIG-

NATION will be used; for example, code 2100 will

be expressed as TWO ONE ZERO ZERO. Due to the