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AIM

10/12/17

3−2−4

Controlled Airspace

NOTE−

1. Separation and sequencing of VFR aircraft will be

suspended in the event of a radar outage as this service is

dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the

service is not available and issued wind, runway

information and the time or place to contact the tower.
2. Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during
CENRAP operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to
the primary airport will be provided on a workload
permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when center
radar presentation (CENRAP) is in use.

1. VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR

aircraft which weigh 19,000 pounds or less by a

minimum of:

(a) Target resolution, or
(b) 500 feet vertical separation, or
(c) Visual separation.

2. VFR aircraft are separated from all VFR/IFR

aircraft which weigh more than 19,000 and turbojets

by no less than:

(a) 

1

/

2

 miles lateral separation, or

(b) 500 feet vertical separation, or
(c) Visual separation.

3. This program is not to be interpreted as

relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and

avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather

conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path

as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to

maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clear-

ance or to remain in weather conditions equal to or

better than the minimums required by 14 CFR

Section 91.155. Approach control should be advised

and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when

compliance with an assigned route, heading and/or

altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility

with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance,

vortex exposure, and weather minimums.

4. ATC may assign altitudes to VFR aircraft that

do not conform to 14 CFR Section 91.159.

“RESUME APPROPRIATE VFR ALTITUDES”

will be broadcast when the altitude assignment is no

longer needed for separation or when leaving Class B

airspace. Pilots must return to an altitude that

conforms to 14 CFR Section 91.159.

f. Proximity operations. VFR aircraft operating

in proximity to Class B airspace are cautioned against

operating too closely to the boundaries, especially

where the floor of the Class B airspace is 3,000 feet

or less above the surface or where VFR cruise

altitudes are at or near the floor of higher levels.

Observance of this precaution will reduce the

potential for encountering an aircraft operating at the

altitudes of Class B floors. Additionally, VFR aircraft

are encouraged to utilize the VFR Planning Chart as

a tool for planning flight in proximity to Class B

airspace. Charted VFR Flyway Planning Charts are

published on the back of the existing VFR Terminal

Area Charts.

3−2−4. Class C Airspace

a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the

surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation

(charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have

an operational control tower, are serviced by a radar

approach control, and that have a certain number of

IFR operations or passenger enplanements. Although

the configuration of each Class C airspace area is

individually tailored, the airspace usually consists of

a 5 NM radius core surface area that extends from the

surface up to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation,

and a 10 NM radius shelf area that extends no lower

than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the airport

elevation.

b. Charts. Class C airspace is charted on

Sectional Charts, IFR En Route Low Altitude, and

Terminal Area Charts where appropriate.

c. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment

Requirements:

1. Pilot Certification. No specific certifica-

tion required.

2. Equipment.

(a) Two-way radio; and
(b) Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, an

operable radar beacon transponder with automatic

altitude reporting equipment.

NOTE−

See paragraph 4−1−20, Transponder Operation, subpara-

graph f2(c) for Mode C transponder requirements for

operating above Class C airspace.

3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry Require-

ments. Two-way radio communication must be

established with the ATC facility providing ATC

services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those

communications while in Class C airspace. Pilots of